One of the main goals of each person to learn a foreign language is to make your speech as much as possible the rich, relaxed and approximate to the original version of the conversation. Naturally, this is not an easy goal encompasses many sub-items, such as vocabulary, work with the vocal apparatus (pronunciation), understanding of the realities of the nation and the State, whose language one learns, and much more. But all this is impossible without the ability to make a beautiful, diverse proposals, expressing the views and thoughts of the broadest way. It is in this and help us to the so-called word-ligament (linking words or linkers). They can not be attributed to a particular part of speech, as short-bundle can be conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, particles, etc. But the main feature of these words is that they give our statements logically complete form, certain circumscribed plane, which develops our thought.
All word-bundles can be divided into several groups, depending on what function they fulfill in the sentence:
- Words allow for examples that support your point of view (linkers for giving example)
- For example (example)
- For instance (example)
- Namely (namely)
There are two problems in process of buying new equipment: namely, the expense and the time.
- Word allows you to add the necessary information statement (linkers for adding more information)
- And (s)
- In addition (moreover)
- As well as (as well as a …)
- Also (as well)
- Too (too)
- Besides (addition)
- Furthermore (besides)
- Moreover (more)
- Apart from (addition)
- In addition to (in addition to)
And it is used to combine similar ideas or concepts. When listing must be a comma after each object enumeration, but not before the Union and. If the Union and is used more than once, before it, too, will be preceded by a comma.
We discussed training of the staff and the budget of the company.
We discussed training of the staff, and the budget, and the ways of delivery.
Also used if you want to express an opinion support, or to emphasize on the new ideas that are going to sound.
We are concerned not only about the costs, but also about the quality of the products.
Also not used at the beginning of sentences. If you want to start a sentence with the word with the same meaning, it is best to resort to the use of cords in addition / in addition to this.
In addition to the costs, we are concerned by the quality of the products.
Bunch AS well as placed either at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. But a bunch of too tend to be at the end.
We are interested in the costs as well as the quality of the products.
We are concerned by the insurance package too.
Apart from, and besides used with the same meaning as in addition to, as well as. And moreover / furthermore allow us to bring further clarifications to the already completed statement.
Apart from (besides) Ferrari, our company is the largest sports car manufacturer.
Marketing plans of your company give us a view of a new potential market. Moreover (furthermore), they inform us about possible ways of future negotiations.
- Words allow to summarize all statements (linkers for summarising information)
- In short (brief)
- In brief (short)
- In summary (in total)
- To summarise (summarizing)
- In conclusion (in summary)
- In a nutshell (in a nutshell)
- To conclude (drawing conclusions)
We usually use the words at the beginning of sentences to give a brief overview of what we have said or written.
In brief (in a nutshell / in short) the negotiations of two companies did not reach the final point.
- Word, allowing to place the idea in the correct sequence (linkers for sequencing ideas)
- The former, … the latter (first … last)
- Firstly, secondly (first, second)
- Finally (after all)
- The first point is (at first)
- Lastly (finally)
- The following (next)
Firstly, secondly, finally, lastly are the best way to transfer ideas. But the words fourthly, fifthly rarely used. Instead, try to use the first point, the second point … the seventh point, etc. The following is the best word-ligament, which can start the transfer.
The following people have been chosen by the administration of the company to go on the training course: Mr. Johnson, Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Hardy.
- Words used to express the reasons for what is happening (linkers for giving a reason)
- Due to / due to the fact that (according to / in accordance with the fact that)
- Owing to / owing to the fact that (thanks to / because)
- Because (because)
- Because of (because of that)
- Since (since both)
- As (since)
After the ligaments due to / owing to prerequisite is the use of a noun.
Due to the rise in oil prices, the state inflation rate rose by 1.41%.
Owing to the demand, we are able to supply your company all items within 2 weeks.
If you want to continue these bunch of other parts of speech, it is best to use a bunch due to the fact / owing to the fact.
Because / because of demand also behind a noun.
Because of bad weather the supplement of the products was stopped till the next day.
Since / as carry the same meaning as that because.
Since our company is expanding, we need to hire more employees.
As our company is expanding, we need to hire more employees.
- Words used to delineate the results statements (linkers for showing the result)
- Therefore (therefore)
- So (so)
- Consequently (accordingly)
- This means that (it means that)
- As a result (as a result)
Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are used with the same semantic meaning and are completely interchangeable.
Our company is expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, we are taking on extra staff.
So in most cases used in casual conversation.
- Words help to counter the ideas of each other (linkers which help to contrast ideas)
- But (but)
- However (yet)
- Although / even though (although / even)
- Despite / despite the fact that (despite / in spite of the fact that)
- In spite of / in spite of the fact that (despite / in spite of the fact that)
- Nevertheless (despite this, after all)
- Nonetheless (nevertheless)
- While (at the time when / notwithstanding what)
- Whereas (as / despite)
- Unlike (unlike)
- In theory … in practice … (on the theory … in practice …)
But it is more informal than however, but both words are used in the early ligament sense of the phrase.
She works hard, but she does not earn much money.
She works hard. However, she does not earn much money.
Although, despite and in spite of the opposition are used for the two points of view, so they require the obligatory presence of the two parts of the sentence.
Although it was not warm, she went out in a light dress.
In spite of the cold, she went out in a light dress.
Nevertheless, and nonetheless convey the meaning, similar to the in spite of (anyway).
The weather was cold, but she went swimming nevertheless. (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
This company is doing great. Nonetheless, they are not going to expand.
While, whereas unlike and show how certain ideas or items are different from each other.
While my mother has blue eyes, mine are green.
Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down.
Unlike in Europe, Asia has cheap petrol.
In theory … in practice … indicates an unexpected result statements.
In theory, students should prepare for lessons, in practice, they often do not do that.
There are some other word-net, but they are much less employed than all of the above and are generally derived from or referred to in this article, or synonyms.