In Science By Lily

What we must remember listening to American hip-hop …

This phenomenon is known as African American Vernacular English (AAVE), which can be translated as the language of African-American people, or Ebonics (From English ebony — black, black and phonics — acoustics). The last expression is most often used is the academic sphere.


Interest in AAVE originated in the mid-20th century, in the 80s, he noticeably waned. In 1996, there was an unusual event in the city of Oakland, California: published the so-called «Oakland resolution.» The resolution recognized the legitimacy of Ebonics and offered to introduce the learning of this dialect in school. Public opinion on this issue, of course, divided. Many have stated that children who do not speak standard English, and never fail to take root in society, to achieve certain heights in it. At the same time, to protect the steel Ebonics some linguists, who argued that the use of the familiar, the «home» language only improve the learning process.

Studies have shown that the public reaction to the «black Angliysky» not only bias, but also ambiguous. In some cases, people are hostile to this phenomenon, in others — believe Ebonics is even more relevant than the standard, correct English.

Causes AAVE cause a lot of discussion. Some scientists believe that AAVE — is a kind of pidgin — a hybrid language that uses the vocabulary of the language and grammar of another. Arriving from the West African land in the plantations, the slaves do not often communicate with native speakers of English, with only a small number of employees. Needless to say, in such circumstances, learning a foreign language, these people are not faced with a variety of grammatical constructions. Therefore, learning new words, they used them according to the rules of their native African languages. Others believe that the emergence of Ebonics mainly influenced not so native languages ​​of the slaves, as the southern US dialects (in this part of the United States slavery was the most common). According to another view, the dominant factor is the displacement afroamerkantsev the most in the lower classes of society for a long time. All three versions do not contradict, but rather complement each other.

Yet Ebonics can not be considered simply ignorance. All deviations from the standard version of the English language is systematic, forming a clear system. The differences from the norm are present at different levels, including vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. Some scholars argue that it even gives you the right to be considered a separate language AAVE. Not being so radically minded, consider the most characteristic features of Ebonics.

Grammar

Probably many of you annoy the following section. It turns out that the mistakes which you and your teachers are struggling so hard in Ebonics considered perfectly normal. We will not try to analyze all the existing deviation. Let us consider the most interesting and common examples:

The verb-copula be

Talking on Ebonics ignore the verb to be as careful, as many English learners. Some scientists believe this fact is most characteristic of the dialects. Very often, the verb to be lowered in front of adjectives: Not _ kind of big (He is kind of big). Before phrases denoting the location: They _ at home (They are at home). The absence of the verb occurs in sentences with gon / gonna: I _ gonna leave now (I am going to leave now). Of the three forms is, am, are caught only in AAVE is. Appropriately from previous forms was / were only was. For example:

The folks is here. = The folks are here.

You all was there. = You all were there.

Past time (Past Simple)

Those who are familiar with the standard version of English, been synonymous with perfect times. But AAVE it is used to form a conventional past and placed before the verb. Thus, She been see dat movie corresponds to the standard She saw that movie.

It is worth noting that this is not the only method of forming the past tense. Consider the following examples:

I seen dat movie. = I saw that movie. (use of participle)

I buy it yesterday. = I bought it yesterday. (used here infinitive, so the past indicates only yesterday)

I knowed him. (education last time irregular verbs with the ending -ed)

For the perfect times, in turn, responds done. For example: I done see dat movie can be translated as I have seen that movie.

Gon or gonna to describe the future (Future):

You gon laugh. = You are going to laugh.

Also to express the intention instead of going to a reduction can be used as:

I’m a tell you. = I’m going to tell you.

Continuous tense (Progressive tenses)

To express duration Ebonics is commonly used verb ending ing or
In.

I walkin ‘. = I am walking.

If the action is a habit and repeated from time to time, there be. This word, as opposed to standard English not normally leaning:

He be drivin ‘all the time. = He is driving all the time.

In order to emphasize the permanence of actions used steady. It can be used before the verb, and the end of the sentence:

We be steady drivin ‘.

We steady be drivin ‘. = We are always driving.

We be drivin ‘steady.

Denial

AAVE often uses is not where standard English is common to use have not:

I is not told him. = I have not told him.

In sentences like I is not see him, is not corresponds did not. It is also worth saying a few words about the double negative. This taboo standard language agliyskom quietly exists in Ebonics:

I is not say dat to nobody. = I did not tell that to anybody.

Linguists also distinguish the so-called negative inversion — of negative sentences in the predicate is placed before the subject: Is not nobody home, Corresponding standard Nobody is home.

Do not nobody like him. — Nobody likes him.

Questions

Interrogative sentences are formed without the support of words and often without inversions (changing the word order): Why I can not go? Where that is?

Pronunciation

When in Hollywood movies appear black, they usually speak Ebonics. All those who have seen these stories agree that this dialect is easy to recognize, thanks to some peculiarities of pronunciation.

At the end of speech consonants often overlooked: the word is pronounced as cold sol, fast as a fas and so on.

Sounds [θ] and [ð]

Sounds [θ] is replaced with the [f], [d], [t] and [v] (booth — [boof]; south — [souf]).

[Ð], in turn, [d] (that day — [dat day]; this house — [dis house]).

Sounds l and r

These sounds are pronounced [uh]. For example: sister — [sistuh], nickel — [nickuh].

[N] instead of [ŋ]

Most often, this change occurs in endings ing. For example: telling — [telin] instead of [teliŋ].

Diphthongs

It is best to explain at this point the examples. In a word my prisutvuet diphthong [mai]. But speaking Ebonics pronounce [ma]. This is due to the fact that the situation does not change the language when speaking the diphthong, although in standard English — just the opposite.

Emphasis

The emphasis is often transferred to the first syllable po lice instead of po li ce.

A few words about vocabulary AAVE

The development of language Ebonics influenced by different factors. For example, the first structure that united black, believe the church. It was from there and came form of treatment brother or sister. Many words come from the music. Among African-American styles of this art — jazz, rhythm and blues, rap.

Separately it is necessary vocabulary, which dates back to the criminal sphere. In Ebonics more than in other dialects of the names of drugs, alcohol and so on. D. Over time, these names began to be used by representatives of different ethnic groups. Many words in AAVE have absolutely opposed to the standard value. Napimer: stupid can be used in the sense of good; nigga — friend, mate; phat (pronounced as fat) — cool. The purpose of such distortion — to conceal the meaning of what has been said by other people.

Many words in AAVE descended from West African languages. For example: bogus, meaning fake (fake) or hep / hip — a well-informed.

In words like dig — understand (understand), or CAT — a friend, a fellow (one) borrowed only the value and form — English.

The whole review — an empty phrase, if you have never heard of Ebonics. The best and most affordable option — it is the song hip hop and rap artists. We offer you a preview video of Beyonce and Jay Z called Bonny and Clyde:

Uhh uhh uhh
You ready B? Let’s go get ’em …

Look for me
Young B
Cruisin ‘down the westside highway
Doin ‘what we like to do our way
Eyes behind shades, this necklace the reason
All of my dates been blind dates
But today, I got my thoroughest girl wit me
I’m mashin ‘the gas, she’s grabbin’ the wheel, it’s trippy
How hard she rides wit me — the new Bobby and Whitney
Only time we do not speak is durin ‘«Sex and the City»
She gets Carrie feva, but soon as the show’s ova
She’s right back to being my soldier
Cuz mami’s a rida, and I’m a rolla
Put us together, how they gon ‘stop both us?
Whatever she lacks, I’m right over her shoulder
When I’m off track mami is keepin ‘me focused
So let’s lock this down like it’s supposed to be
The ’03 Bonnie and Clyde, Hov ‘and B, holla

Chorus:

Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)
Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)

The problem is, you dudes treat the one that you lovin ‘
Wit the same respect that you treat the one that you humpin ‘
That is not ’bout nuttin’ (nothing) — if ever you mad about sunntin ‘(something)
It will not be that; oh no it will not be that
I do not be at, places where we comfy at
With no beach; oh no you will not see that
And no, I is not perfect — nobody walkin ‘this earth’s surface is
But girlfriend, work wit the kid
I keep you workin ‘that Hermes Birkin bag
Manolo Blahnik Timbs, aviator lens
600 drops, Mercedes Benz
The only time you wear Burberry to swim
And I do not have to worry, only worry is him
She do anything necessary for him
And I do anything necessary for Her
So do not let the necessary occur, yep!

Chorus:

Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)
Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)

Jay-Z:

(Talk to ’em B)

Beyonce:

If I was your girlfriend
I’ll be there for you, if somebody hurts you
Even if that somebody, teasin ‘, was me
Yeah-hee (break it down for ’em)
Sometimes I trip on how happy we could be
(take ’em up top)
And so I put this on my life
Nobody or nothin ‘will ever come between us
And I promise I’ll give my life
My love and my trust if you was my boyfriend (one more time)
Put this on my life
The air that I breathe in, all that I believe in
I promise I’ll give my life
My love and my trust if you was my boyfriend

Chorus:

Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)
Jay-Z: All I need in this life of sin is me and my girlfriend (me and my
Girlfriend)
Beyonce: Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend (me and My
boyfriend)

Next song also featuring Beyonce, as well as less well-known, we rap performers Missy Elliot, Mc Lyte, and Free:

Fighting temptation

[Missy]
Yo Beyonce, Free, MC Lyte, y’all ready
Let it put it down for the clubs

[Beyonce + Missy + Free + MC Lyte]
Ladies! HEY! we got that beat that make you jump
To my fellas! whoo! Ya’ll got them cars them ladies love
Party People! yeah! we gonna party all night
And let yo soul, work! ooo! and let yo soul keep on workin ‘out

[Verse 1 — Missy + (Missy, Beyonce, MC Lyte, Free)]
I’m the type of chick, who be fightin ‘temptation
Make you wait, before we have a relation
Playboy, holla at me lata ‘
Do not you know I’m managed by Violator
(They shootin ‘), I’m exterminator
I look good, so hate me hater
Me and my girls drinkin ‘, where’s the waiter
Cheatin ‘guys, I already played ya
Ladies night do not suffocate us
If you touch us, we gonna altercation
Warn Missy, you’s impersonator
I got so much ice, I even scare Jacob
(Beyonce, MC Lyte, and Free)
(Missy, put it down on da beat)
Party people, it’s good sensation
We gonna show you, how to fight temptation

[Chorus — Beyonce]
I’m just fighting temptation (Yeah)
Gotta get more control (Control, yeah)
Yet it’s very tempting when you ask to take me home (Home)
I know you want my love (Love)
I do not think the time is right (No)
Call when I’m ready, but it will not be tonight

[Verse 2 — Free]
We in the club, Free gully no doubt
See this real deal playa, starin ‘dead in my mouth
He got his crew, but I got mine too
Send a note to my table like, what you gonna do
Eye game got him spreadin ‘me out
In my ear dry tears, how he left his spouse
And oh, the nice cars, and impressive house

He want to run up in, I is not no regular route (Hoooo!)
Me and the girls, we is not stressin ‘out
We is not birds, we is not headin ‘south (Noooo!)
Them one nighters, that’s sad and doubt
That little talk on da creep, what you said is out
I gets cheddar, to help me do what ever
No beef with Dennis Edwards, but I fight temptation
I’m not sayin ‘I do not like temptation
I’m just lookin ‘for da right temptation, ya kno’

[Chorus]

[Verse 3 — MC Lyte]
Yeah, party like I never partied before
I hit the door, all the dudes hit the floor
Sweet, they messin ‘wit the brown sugar queen
Fightin ‘temptation, like Layla Ali
Wit the 1, 2, let me show you what the hon ‘do
When I come through, wit the butta dip crew
Now, show me that you got my back
Love me from, where you at
I got eyes up, over my shoulder
If you should decide, to get closer (Hooo!)
Well then this dance, is straight over
I’m gone, and Missy’s Testaroasa
«Be cool», thay what Free say
B. say, «Keep it clean but give them lee way»
All I know, it’s a crazy sensation
You fine, but I’m fightin ‘temptation

[Chorus]

Wooooooo
(We goin ‘show you how to fight temptation)
My love, yeah
I’m jus’ lookin for da right temptation
Wooooo, yeah, yeah, yeah
(We goin ‘show you how to fight temptation)
I’m jus’ lookin for da right temptation)

 

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