Studying English grammar, we are introduced to separate (notional parts of the speech) and service (functional parts of the speech) parts of speech. The first is known to have an independent value, and may perform different syntactic roles in the sentence. But the latter have no independent value, but only connect words and sentences, sometimes enhance or define the values of other words. By the official unions are parts of speech, prepositions, particles, interjections, modal verbs and exclamations. Said first auxiliary part of speech, that is the union (conjunction), and is the subject of our discussion in this article.
What is the «union» in English?
As we have said, this is a service of the speech, which helps to draw the connection between the parts of a complex sentence, between the individual proposals in the text, as well as between words, as part of a simple sentence. If we speak of the form of unions in English, it is noted that in this case, they may be simple, complex, or compound. Judging by the names suggests that the simple (simple) is a single word (and, but, or), complex (compound) are expressed by means of two simple unions (wherever, howerer), and composite (composite) designed as a combination of service and significant words (as well as, in order that).
If we are talking about the functions performed by associations in the English language, do not forget that all existing unions can be divided into two groups: coordinative (coordinating) and subordinate (subordinating). First need to link the uniform of the sentence or just a part of the independent proposal slozhnosochinennogo. Subordinating the unions in the English language are used for connection to the main subordinating proposals as part of the complex.
In turn, considering the more detailed classification of unions in the English language, we can see that coordinative unions are:
- Connecting / copulative (and, as well as, both … and other)
It was all dark overhead and in front of her there was a long passage. (And — in the meaning of «and»)
Both Tom and Ann were late.
He neither wrote nor phoned.
- adversative / adversative (and, but, yet, however, and others)
Henry lived in a small town, but then he got a job in a big city and moved there with his wife.
The waters of the sea were deep, yet clear.
- Isolating / disjunctive (or, either … or)
He was not quick either of vision or conception.
Be polite or you’ll miss your chance!
- causal / causative-consecutive (for, so)
She missed the plane for her car broke down.
Subordinating conjunctions in English are more diverse, and therefore the classifications they twice. The main groups of subordinating conjunctions in English are:
- izjasnitelnyh (that, whether, if)
He suggested that we should give him the time to think over the problem. (that — that that)
I do not care whether she comes to the party or not.
- time (when, as soon as, till, before, while and others)
Dinner will be served at 7.30 after the guests arrive.
What have you been doing since you were fired from work?
- causal (as, because, since, etc.)
Farmers must rise early since they have so much work to do. (since — because, as)
The government requires warnings on cigarettes because smoking is not good for your health.
- target (in order that, so that other)
I will lend you my car so that you fill it up with petrol.
He put on his glasses in order that he could see better.
- conditional (if, unless, provided / providing that, supposing, once and others)
Please, come by my house if you get a chance.
She’d be very attractive provided that she lost all that weight.
- concessive (though, although)
He was gay though tired.
We still went to the beach although the sun was not shining.
- and comparing the modus operandi (as if, so … as, as … as, than, the … the other)
He shook his head a bit as if in wonder that he had permitted himself this behaviour.
The more I think about it the more nervous I become.
- investigation (so … that, that)
She arrived early so that she could help me prepare the meal.
The film was so boring that I felt asleep.
Unions in the English language is not so much, and you can learn them all. One of the best ways to remember them, in my opinion, is the constant view of the table with the unions in the English language. This table can make your own by writing in a column all the unions, dividing them into groups, as well as providing them with translation and sentence usage examples. Or you can use ready-made material, which is dedicated to the unions in the English language. For example, from the book by G. Epstein «pretext. Unions. Derivation «(St. Petersburg, publishing» Karo «, 2001) or allowances« Structured tasks for English practice »(Gallaucet College).
This topic is closely related to the other as described in the articles that need to pay attention:
- «Like and as are in the English language»
- «Coordinative conjunctions in English»
- «Subordinating conjunctions in English»
After reading them, we recommend to pass the following test: «The test for unions in the use of the English sentence.»