Surely each of those who study foreign languages, at least once faced with a lack of understanding of something that that is considered to be very simple. And sometimes people who speak the language well enough, can not answer a simple question. Very often, this happens with the Russian people, who are learning English, since not all the language is similar in grammatical structure with the Russian language. Today I would like to talk about the so-called back there + be, who accepted to study at the beginning of the course, as a rule, the levels Starter / Elementary, but sometimes up to the Intermediate level, students are experiencing certain difficulties in the use of the grammatical structure.
So, what kind of revolution and why we need it?
This grammatical turn can be translated into the Russian language the word «is», «has», «there», «it is».
Turnover there + be used in these situations:
- when the speaker intends to emphasize the presence or absence of an object or phenomenon, not a place in which the object or phenomenon is.
There are many ways of solving such a problem. — There are many ways to solve this problem.
- when the speaker wants to make emphasis on the location, the location of an object, subject or phenomenon. In this case, a sentence containing the reporting turnover finishes circumstance of place or time, and the translation should begin with these circumstances.
There are many books in room 145. — In an audience of 145 lots of books.
Thus, we can say that sentences with grammatical turnover there + be (in a suitable form) indicate the presence or absence (when using negation) of a phenomenon or an object in a certain designated area. Such proposals are based on the structure shown in the following table:
| There + be
in an appropriate form
|Subject||Circumstances of place|
|There is||a desk||in the classroom|
|Yes (available)||desk||in class|
As noted earlier in this article, the translation of such proposals should begin with the circumstances of the place. Ie the proposal of the table There is a desk in the classroom, it is logical to be translated as «The class is (available) a desk.»
As part of the grammar of turnover there + be the word there is a theoretical element and the Russian language it can not translate. Thus, the translation of the Russian proposal in which the circumstances of place is expressed by the pronoun «it» in English, in the end of a sentence using the adverb there:
There were a lot of people there. — There were a lot of people.
Thus, it is worth noting again that the grammatical revolution there + be on the value corresponds to Russian word «is», «has», «sometimes», «is», although quite often the translation of the turnover is not required:
There is a lamp on his desk. — On his desk (ie, available) lamp.
This turnover is better to start to translate from circumstances of place, which is usually located in the end of the sentence (if any):
There are a few students in the hall. — In the hallway (there is) a few students.
If such circumstance no place on transfer offer is better to start with the words «there», «there»:
There are some articles to be checked. — There are a few items that should be checked.
In the structure of turnover there + be the auxiliary verb to be always expressed in the form of a third person regardless of the time, namely:
|Past||There was / were||There had been|
|Present||There is / are||There has been / have been|
|Future||There will be||There will have been|
This turnover is changed by numbers — so that you can see in the table its variation there is, there was, there has been, are used only to refer to the subject or the subject is singular, and forms there are, there were, that indicate the plural number. This turnover is not used for a long time Continuous.
If the proposal to be used a few at a time, to be a verb usually agrees with the subject standing directly behind the trafficking:
There is a desk and four chairs in the room. — In a room writing table and four chairs.
There are four chairs and a desk in the room. — In the room with four chairs and a desk.
In the formation of interrogative forms of the verb to be in its proper form is put directly before the word there:
Were there many interesting views in her composition? — In her essay was a lot of insight?
Short affirmative answer to this question consists of the word Yes (Yes), after which there will follow the word and the verb to be in an appropriate form:
Is there a book on your table? — Yes, there is. — On your desk is a book? — Yes.
The short answer is negative, we make out the words No (no), followed by the word there and the verb to be in the appropriate form with negative particle not:
Are there any chairs in the room? — No, there are not. — The room has a chair? — No.
For speaking much more common short forms of trafficking:
- there is not = there is not
- there are not = there are not
If you ask the question to the subject in a sentence with a turnover there + be, you must use the interrogative pronoun what / who, being the subject of an interrogative sentence:
What is there for breakfast today? — What’s for breakfast?
Who is there in the kitchen? — Who (is) in the kitchen?
If you ask the question to be defined, it is necessary to use question words how many / how much / which / what, that precede the subject:
How much money is there in your bag? — How much money do you have in your bag?
What books are there on your table? — What books are on your desk?
Negative suggestion can be formed in two ways: either by using negative pronouns no, or by means of the negative particle not, which we have mentioned above, and pronouns any.
There is no message for you. — For you there is no message.
There is not any news in his letter. — In his letter there is no news.
Important to remember that the word no is used only when the revolution itself there + be does not contain negation.
And now try to pass the test: