TPR (Total Physical Response), or the method of complete physical response was developed by American psychologist John. Asher. He became popular in the 1970s. The scientist decided to help learn a second language as a foreign language, do it as efficiently as possible and painless. The underlying theory of the two hemispheres of the brain, where the left side is responsible for logic and conscience, and the right — for intuition and the subconscious. Learn the language of the traditional methods, we build knowledge in the left hemisphere (rote memorization, repetition). If we use the TPR, new skills are in the right hemisphere and, as a result, remain with us forever.
The study of this method is compared with the development of our native language as a child and called the principle of the natural sequence of language acquisition. Initially, the child «naslushivaetsya» language, it is not forced to speak, and then he begins to realize that he should do what the words are associated with any objects, it gets light from the parent team. And only when he is ready internally, he himself begins to speak. That is to say you need to listen to a lot initially. Next, the child is taught to read and then write letters, words. And only in the school begins grammar. All stages of development of the native language handled serially in the method of TPR. Only with the amendment that they do not study grammar.
What is missing from the TPR method compared to conventional methods?
Why is this method does not need a translation? — Since each word included in the network, which connects it with other words, it is easier to teach the word in context, and immediately know its specific use. Translation of the word does not perform this function.
Why is this method not learn the rules? — Study of the rules leads to the development of language through the left hemisphere, which is contrary to this method. The student eventually begins to «feel the language» and say something wrong for him to be unnatural (similar to the native language, we do not always know the rules, but says is true).
I suggest you see the fragments of the lesson of TPR method as an example of the Spanish language:
According to the professor, this method is effective, as adults, learning a second language will progress as children, learning the native, because they have the ability to 1) listen to the language, 2) are in a secure environment, 3) where they were not forced to talk.
What is the training scheme and lesson plans built on this method?
Classes can be held both in groups and individually. But it is better that it was a group. In the first lessons the teacher introduces a certain number of teams, starting with verbs, nouns and then connecting. Initially used only those objects that surround students in the classroom.
Driving the input of a new word made exclusively through the command:
- Teacher tells the command and performs the action with the students (a few times).
- Next teacher voiced command, and the students have to make their own actions (not saying a command aloud) (several times).
- Teacher turns individually to each student, offering to execute certain commands.
Such sets consisting of teams can be quite a lot for one lesson. At the end of the lesson is the global recurrence.
After all the items in the classroom are mastered, begin the use of images, abstract concepts (through role-play), further study the whole story, basing language at times. Only after about 20 hours of classes, students are beginning to say aloud the words, give commands to each other. In another time, they begin to read the text, and then learn to write.
Undoubtedly, the TPR method rather interesting, unusual and quite effective in the early stages of learning a foreign language. But, as each method, it has its advantages and disadvantages.
Of the merits of may be called that by the team is really easier to learn words, and they are stored. Sam takes a lesson interesting and fun.
Among the shortcomings: this method does not provide a tool for self-development. Studying the language traditionally we learn to apply the rules of the language on the net, and then we can do to deal with the grammar, using the theory and exercises, and, anyway, we are well remember new material. And, of course, there are people logic, which to learn a language is traditionally much easier. In my opinion, the method of TPR will not save error. Not knowing the rules and being in an English speaking environment all the time, people can not get the same «sense of language.» And learn how to speak correctly, and where you need to agree on the proposal, without using any theoretical sources. Also, many students afraid of the lack of textbooks and homework.
To summarize, I can say that the method of TPR, certainly worthy of attention. Once selected, you will be interested to learn the language. But if you need to learn the language seriously and at a pace that traditional methods will be your best assistant. 🙂