When we start to learn English, it seems that the longer the time, the English name, the harder it is to remember his education and understand the function of language. But when you will be familiar with most of the time in the English language, you’ll realize that the days with long names, by contrast, have few functions, and their use is strongly dependent on the context.
What is the Present Perfect Continuous? This is just one of these times, which has only two features in English. But first, let’s talk about his education. And to understand what is in this time very simple. From the title it is clear that this time will be something of the group Perfect and something from a group of Continuous. Remember the principles of formation of the times these groups and try to imagine how time seems Present Perfect Continuous. Most of the students answer this question correctly on the first try.
Education Present Perfect Continuous, example sentences
First, let’s learn how forms Present Perfect Continuous.
This tense is formed by using the auxiliary verb to be in time Present Perfect, t. E. The auxiliary verb have the form been / has been (for the third person singular person — he, she, it). It added auxiliary verb present participle formed from the verb meaning (ie. E. Infinitive verb + the ending — ing). All of this is as follows:
I have been waiting for you for two hours. — I’m waiting for you for two hours.
The Present Perfect Continuous interrogative sentences are formed very simple: put the first part of the auxiliary verb (have) in the beginning of the sentence:
Have you been waiting for me for two hours? — You expect me two hours?
A negative form not put a piece after the first part of the auxiliary verb (have):
I have not been waiting for you for two hours. — I’m not waiting for you for two hours.
As Abbreviations used the following forms:
- I ‘ve been waiting …
- He ‘s been waiting …
- We have not been waiting …
- She has not been waiting …
- Have not you been waiting? ..
- Has not he been waiting? ..
When used Present Perfect Continuous
As already mentioned, Present Perfect Continuous has two quite different functions. But combines them that by this time, somehow transmitted long action.
When using the Present Perfect Continuous:
- Present Perfect Continuous is used to transmit an action that started in the past, it lasted for some time and continues to be made in the present. Here are a few classic examples:
She has been cooking dinner for three hours already. — She cooks dinner for three hours. (all the while she was cooking, and has not yet finished, continue to cook)
I have been reading this book since the beginning of summer. — I read this book from the beginning of the summer. (I read some part, but not yet finished, keep reading)
We have been staying in this hotel nearly a month. — We live in this hotel for almost a month. (part of a month have lived and continue to live)
When the time is used in this function, the verb refers to the present time and has the appropriate translation: cooking, reading, live.
As a rule, the sentence always indicates the time when this action is performed, but without a clear time frame. According to the main time-signs are for, since, lately, recently, as well as the type of expression without prepositions quite a while, these three days, etc. Questions containing Present Perfect Continuous, usually begin with an expression of how long, and since when:
How long has she been dating with your brother? — How long will it meets with your brother?
Since when have you been starring in films? — C when did you act in films?
Note that in complex sentences with the union since in the subordinate clause is used during Past Simple, because it represents a concrete action in the past, which started the action of the main clause:
He has been sitting in the living-room since he came. — He is sitting in the living room since he came.
Due to the fact that the time Present Perfect Continuous may indicate that prolonged the action takes place in real time, as well as the fact that the action familiar to the speaker, as has repeatedly happened in the past and continues to happen now, this time is often confused with Present Continuous and Present Simple. But to choose the right time, you will not be difficult if you remember that the Present Perfect Continuous is always accompanied by an indication of the time when an action occurs (or is it implied context), and in the case of the Present Continuous Present Simple and duration are not always indicated. Consider the simplest examples:
I have been reading this magazine since I bought it a week ago. — I read this magazine since I bought it a week ago. (now part of the read, keep reading)
I am reading this magazine. — I read this magazine. (at the moment I sit and read)
I have been living in England for the last eight years. — I live in England the last eight years. (I moved eight years ago and still live)
I live in England. — I live in England. (it does not matter, when I was there, live there permanently)
- Time Present Perfect Continuous is used to pass long action in the past, that ended immediately before the speech, and the result of this action has an impact on the present. For example:
The streets are wet. It has been raining all the morning. — The street is wet. The whole morning was rain.
This function transfers the action verb in the past, therefore, translated into Russian will be used by the verb in the past tense.
She looks very sad. What have you been saying to her? — She looks sad. What do you uttered it?
We are very tired because we have been walking in the mountains since early morning. — We are very tired, as were walking in the mountains in the early morning.
In this function, the time indicator can not be used:
Look at you! What have you been doing? — Look at you! What did you do?
Time Present Perfect Continuous, as a rule, is not used with verbs of state. In this case, instead used the time Present Perfect:
I have loved him since we first met. — I love him with our first meeting.
We’ve known each other for two years already. — We know each other for two years.
However, there are exceptions:
Thank god, you are here! I’ve been wanting to talk to you! — Thank God you’re here! I really wanted to talk to you.
We’ve been needing this money since we got married and we know how to spend it. — We needed the money since we got married, and we know what to spend it.
Here’s all you need to know about time Present Perfect Continuous. It is not complicated, has only two features in the speech and in most cases used in the language with the time indicator.
This topic is closely related to the other as described in the articles that need to pay attention:
- «Currently, the English»
- «Time Present Simple»
- «Time Present Continuous»
- «Time Present Perfect (Present Perfect Time)»
After reading them, we recommend to pass the following test: «test group times Present».