I would call the theme subjunctive in English (Subjunctive Mood) One of the most difficult section of the «grammar» for two reasons. Firstly, the inclination of many different forms, both synthetic (simpler) and analytical (more difficult). And in order to know them all, you must understand how to set up each of them. Secondly, subjunctive in English and covers past, the present and future times, and in different times, respectively, to be used on different forms. Third, there are many types of proposals and structures in which it is used the inclination. H, and finally, sometimes it is difficult to understand and observe the meaning of which is implicit in each case, so sometimes we think, and whether there subjunctive in English or in any grammatical form.
Whatever it was, if you still teaching English grammar and understand the features of the use of this inclination, there are no obstacles to the attainment of this topic and will not occur.
What does the subjunctive: offers examples of Subjunctive Mood
As we know, English has three moods: indicative (Indicative Mood), imperative (Imperative Mood), and the subjunctive. Some grammar, but not all, allocate more and the fourth — the conditional mood (Conditional Mood). The first of these inclinations expresses the reality of action in all three times, the second — the impulse to action, request or order; But the third (we need) — a possibility suggested, desire, doubt or unreality of the action. Do not be frightened by such vague definitions inclinations, all the examples will be clear. The main thing to remember is that in the subjunctive mood in English can talk about imaginary (preferably prospective) situations that are possible under certain circumstances or efforts, or who initially never feasible.
Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. — If I saw him yesterday, I would have asked him about it.
In the Russian language the subjunctive verb often translated by a combination of a verb in the past tense with the particle TO (and this applies to any form of time). As options: I would like to, could have, could have, would have known, would wait, etc.
If I were you I should have gone to bed earlier before the exam. — If I were in your place, before the exam, I would have gone to bed early.
We’ll talk about the two forms of the subjunctive verb in the English language — synthetic (Subjunctive I) and analytical (Subjunctive II). Before you consider options for the use of these two forms, the rules focus on their education.
So-called «old, archaic» or in other words a simple (synthetic) form is not in its composition any auxiliary verbs. These forms coincide with the forms of the infinitive without the particle to, simple or perfect forms of the past tense. If we speak of Present Subjunctive I, it should be noted that in this case, the shape (infinitive without to) remains unchanged, regardless of person and number (i.e., NO — s at the end of 3 liters. U. Hr.). The verb to be, too, does not change for person and number in a sentence in the subjunctive mood, and remains — be.
I suggest that we all go to the concert. — I propose that we all went to the concert.
It is necessary that all people care of their health. — It is essential that all concerned about their health.
If we are talking about Past Subjunctive I, I remember that this shape is similar to the form of the simple past tense (Past Simple). In this case, the verb to be is in the form were all persons and numbers. As the first and second forms are finding themselves in terms of action in three time planes that do not precede the moment of speaking.
If only he were free! — If only it was free!
It’s about time you solved your problems! — It was time to solve their problems.
And if we are talking about Past Perfect Subjunctive I, the shape is the same thing as the perfect past tense (Past Perfect). In this case we will have to deal with the events of the past that have already occurred before the statement.
I wish I had finished my picture long ago. — I wish I still had not finished his painting.
If we had been at the hospital, we should have helped you with your medical insurance. — If we were in the hospital, we have helped you with health insurance.
We turn to the complex (analytic) forms — Subjunctive II. These forms are a combination of auxiliary verbs (should / would / might / could) and the main verb infinitive without the particle to, or perfect neperfektnogo. Moreover, in recent years would hardly used, and to all persons and numbers to take should. Could (elapsed from the can) is a physical possibility of the action (could have, could have) and might (passed on may) is responsible for the ability to acts related to the circumstances.
This form of the subjunctive in English — Subjunctive II — has two times: Present Subjunctive II and Perfect Subjunctive II. In the first case, we should indefinitely after the verb infinitive without to, but the second — the perfect verb infinitive without to. The difference between the present and the perfect subjunctive verb in the English language is as follows: using the present subjunctive, we’re talking about probably a desirable action that can still (can not) be realized in the future. If we turn to perfect subjunctive, it shows that the time has already passed the probable action, and the action itself and remains in the plans. Here we can regret, indignation, hope … but to no avail, because everything is already happened.
Why should I go there? — Why should I go there?
The teacher advised that the girl should be sent to a musical school. — The teacher advised that the girl was sent to a music school.
It’s a pity you should have fallen ill. — I wish you ill.
If we had had to choose we should have come to another country. — If we had to choose, we would have gone to another country.
Usually form Subjunctive I used in subordinate clauses, and forms of Subjunctive II — in the main clause as part of complex or simple sentences. But this is not an axiom, there are exceptions and nuances. On the «how» and «where» is used the subjunctive in English, you can read in the article «The use of the subjunctive in English.» And then be sure to pass the test «The test for the subjunctive in English.»