In Science By Daria

The pronunciation of words ending in -ed, -es

As is known, in English there is a rule of pronunciation endings.

All end es (3 person personal singular case .; plural), — ed pronounced as follows: after voiceless consonants [s], [t], in other cases, [z], [d].

If the root word ends in a hissing or whistling, — es pronounced [iz], and ed reads as [id], if the root word ends in the sound [t] or [d].

It is established in the language relatively recently — in the years 1500-1660 (the language of Shakespeare).

But in modern English there are a number of words in which ed reads as [id], because these words are included in the category of adjectives:

  1. naked [neikid] — naked, nude, naked (without further transcription — the end of the reading, by analogy [id])
  2. crooked — curve, curved; dishonest, dishonorable
    crooked sixpence — Lucky Coin
    srooked dealings — dishonest business
  3. wicked — evil, evil, vicious, immoral
    wicked intents — Bad Intentions
    war is wicked — war — is evil
    wicked designs — deceitfully
  4. wretched — miserable, pathetic
  5. learned — scholar, erudite, with deep knowledge, trained (the animal)
  6. blessed — blessed, sanctified, blessed
  7. dogged — stubborn, stubborn
    dogged resolution — firm resolve
    dogged work — hard work
    to meet with a dogged resistance — to encounter stiff resistance
    it’s dogged (that) does it — perseverance brings victory
  8. ragged — uneven, rough, jagged
    ragged edge — (Amer.) uneven or serrated edge
    ragged cliffs (rocks) — jagged cliffs (rock)
    ragged knife blade — serrated blade
  9. rugged — is uneven, rough, non-smooth
    rugged bark — rough bark
    rugged country — fluctuate rough terrain
    rugged mountains — Rocky Mountains
    a rugged coast — rugged coast
  10. jagged — jagged, roughly torn
    jagged nails — nails bitten
  11. aged — old, old
  12. beloved — beloved, beloved
  13. cursed — cursed

When the word (adjective or participle) ending in ed, join ly, — ness, in this case, [i] becomes spoken:

  • fixedly [‘fiksidli] — closely in focus
  • markedly — noticeably, apparently deliberately

    He was markedly polite. — He was emphatically polite.

  • amusedly — amazement, a (pleasant) surprise
  • assuredly — of course, no doubt confident with confidence
  • attachedly — devotedly
  • yours attachedly — devoted to you (at the end of the message)
  • confessedly — by his own admission, was a
  • confusedly — embarrassed, puzzled, bewildered, confused
  • deservedly — earned, deserved, duly
  • designedly — intentionally, deliberately, on purpose
  • despleasedly — annoyance, annoyed, displeased
  • forcedly — forced, compulsory, forced
  • sacredly — sacred, inviolable
  • supposedly — supposedly
  • blessedness — bliss, happiness
  • far-sightedness — far-sightedness, far-sightedness

This list of words, in my opinion, do not need to learn, but simply to take note of as a reflection of phonetic and lexical phenomena in language.



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