What people think, «grew up» in the classical grammar of seeing such a proposal: «He shouldn’t’ve done it»? Or is this: «Where does she live, that girl?». Most likely, he will think that it is absolutely incorrect the reduction in the first case and the lack of knowledge of word order in the second. But this is not true. The fact is that modern English is extremely rich, not only lexical, and grammatical structures. And though they are not the norm, but they reflect the modern trends of language and how many people say really.
It should be noted that the phenomenon see all spoken English grammar would be very difficult within one article. Therefore, we offer you the first part of a series of articles on the topic. And in it we analyze the following: reduction (contraction), omission (ellipsis), insert (insert), an introduction and a tag (preface and tag).
Contraction — cut. This phenomenon is quite usual and understandable in most cases. For example, can not = can not, do not = do not, I’m = I am and m. D. It is known that reducing the — sign conversational style, nevertheless the aforementioned forms are normal, ie. E., Their use is not contrary to the generally established rules of grammar. According to the «conversational rules,» we can combine with modal auxiliaries, even with the negative particle not.
Mike couldn’t’ve known about it. — Mike could not know about it.
You shouldn’t’ve gone there. — Do not you were going there.
Colloquially, we can also use a reduction in the presence of the subject, expressed by several nouns.
Mark and Jenny’ve passed the exam. — Mark and Jenny took the exam.
The President and his team’re going to the summit. — The President and his team go to the summit.
Ellipsis — the ellipsis, the omission of any part of the text or grammatical construction. This phenomenon is quite popular in colloquial speech as «saving» the word, and consequently — making it more fluent. Ellipsis is lowering the words in a conversation, if the statement is preserved. Most often, such omission is happening with the words at the beginning of the proposal or not far from it.
|Lowering member||Full offer||Elliptical offer|
|Auxiliary verb||How are you doing? — How are you?||How you doing? — How do you?|
|The subject + be / will|| I’m alright, thanks. — I’m fine, thank you.
I’ll see you later. — See you later.
I’m not sure about that. — I’m not sure.
| Alright, thanks. — Well thank you.
See you later. — See you later.
Not sure about that. — Not sure.
|Parts of the interrogative form (often with verbs see, hear, think)|| Are you going with us? — Are you coming with us?
Would you like some lemonade? — Would you like a bit of lemonade?
Do you want some water? — You want some water?
Have you got a little time? — Do you have a little time?
Do you like it? — Do you like it?
| Going with us? — You go with us?
(Some) lemonade? — Lemonade?
Want some water? — Would you like some water?
Got a little time? — There is a time?
Like it? — Like?
|Substantive|| I must not complain. — I should not complain.
I do not know. — I dont know.
| Must not complain. — Not complaining.
Do not know. — I do not know.
|Article||The delivery man’s here. — Courier here.||Delivery man’s here. — Courier here.|
|It / there|| It might get colder tomorrow. — Tomorrow may be cold.
Is there anybody? — There’s someone else?
| Might get colder tomorrow. — Tomorrow may be cold.
Anybody there? — Is there anyone?
Pay attention! Due to the mismatch of grammatical structures and phenomena in Russian and English languages, the difference between full and elliptical sentences are not always visible in the translation, which sometimes can not be literal.
It is also possible if the words at the end, especially in the short answer.
Will you be at the meeting? — You’ll be at the meeting?
I should be (I should be at the meeting). — Must.
Are you singing at the gala concert? — You sing at a gala concert?
I hope to (I hope to sing at the gala concert). — I hope so.
Insert — insert a word or expression that is used in speech (but not writing) and performs some communicative functions (thinking out loud, emphasis, harmony and so on. D.). Inserting usually helps speech sound more smoothly and logically.
|Example of insertion||Purpose of use||Examples|
|Well||The expression of doubt or pause before returning to the subject of previous discussions.||Well, I have not been there yet. — Well, I have not been there yet.|
|Right||Attracting attention, the belief that the listener agrees to talk about.|| Right. Can you switch off your phones, please? — So, you could not turn off their phones?
You’re OK, right? — Are you all right, huh?
|I mean||Paraphrase, explanation, clarification.||I speak this language, I mean, English. — I can speak the language, I mean English.|
|You know||The belief is that the listener understands what is at stake.||I really liked French cuisine, you know, frogs’ legs and so on. — I really liked the French cuisine, you know, frog legs, and so on.|
|OK||Usually it is standing at the end of the utterance. The belief is that the listener agrees with the foregoing.||See you at 5, OK? — See you at 5, all right?|
|Now||Changing the subject, or return to the previous topic.||That was interesting. Now, who wants to listen to another story? — It was interesting. Now, who wants to listen to another story?|
|Like||Pause, an indication that the statement has not been completed, and should be more information on the topic.||I did not join them because it was, like, dangerous. — I did not go with them, because it was, well, dangerous.|
Inserts can be used not only speaking, but also the listener for a particular purpose.
There’s been another bank robbery. — It has been another bank robbery.
Really? — True? (box used to demonstrate interest in the speaker)
I’m sick and tired of his behaviour. — I’m fed up with his behavior.
Uh huh. — Well yes. (Box listener used for evidence of tolerance, understanding what says his companion)
Preface and tag. Introduction and tag
Preface — introductory word or phrase. Tag — tag — word (phrase) following the main statements. Both phenomena are used to make sure that the listener must go our thoughts, understand what we say.
That night club, what’s it called? — That a nightclub, as it is called? (example of the introductory phrase)
What is she doing, that girl? — What does it do, the girl? (Example tagged)
The introductory phrase or word can also be used to introduce a new topic.
Ireland, what a lovely country it is! — Ireland, what a wonderful country!
Now let’s video views «English Grammar Lesson: Colloquial or Formal». It is possible to find examples of the phenomena that we have considered above.
And now we propose to pass the following test: