It is generally accepted that a textile is a fabric made from fibres. (It is considered that the textile — a fabric made from the fiber.) But Figure 1 shows that the fibres may either be converted into yarn first and then the yarns put together to make fibres, or the fibres can be converted directly into a fabric . (However, Figure 1 shows that the fiber can be first converted into yarn and then made from this yarn fabric or fiber can be directly converted into the fabric.)
Figure 1 (Figure 1).
- Textiles — textiles.
- Fibres — fiber.
- Filament — textile thread.
- Staple — elementary (textile) fibers.
- Yarn — Yarn.
- Fabrics — cloth.
- Woven (fabric) — woven products.
- Knitted (fabric) — knitted jerseys.
- Braided (fabric) — woven fabric.
- Lace (fabric) — Lace fabric.
- Net (fabric) — tulle.
- Felt (fabric) — nonwoven product felting, felt.
- Bonded fibre fabric — glued nonwoven fabric.
But not all fibres are suitable for textile purposes because a textile fibre must possess sufficient length, fineness, strength and flexibility to be suitable for manufacture into fabrics. (Not all of the fibers are suitable for textiles, as textile fiber must be sufficiently long, high quality, strength and elasticity to be suitable for making fabrics.)
The basic structural elements of all textiles (woven fabrics, knitted and bonded fabrics, braids, laces) are staples and filaments. (The main structural elements of textile materials (fabrics, knitted and nonwoven fabrics, ribbons, laces) are textile (basic) fibers and textile yarns.) These two terms — staple and filament — represent the two basic forms of textile fibres. (These two terms — textile (basic), fiber and textile yarn — are the two main forms of textile fibers.)
Staple is the name given to fibres of limited length used for manufacturing of yarn and textile products. (Textile fibers — the fiber of limited length, is used for the manufacture of yarns and textiles.) An example of a natural staple fibre is cotton. (Examples of natural textile fibers — cotton.)
Filament is the name given to a fibre of continuous length. (Textile yarn — a string of limited length.) An example of a natural filament is silk. (Examples of natural textile yarn — silk.)
All fibres fall into (all fibers are divided into):
- natural — obtained from natural sources, such as wool from sheep (natural — derived from natural sources, such as sheep’s wool);
- chemical — produced from various substances by chemical processes (chemical — made from various substances by chemical processes).
After cleaning and blending, the fibres are spun into yarn. (After cleaning and mixing fibers are twisted into yarn.) Yarn can consist of either staple fibres, or of filaments put together. (Yarn may consist either of textile fibers, or of textile fibers bonded together.) This is then processed into fabric in a weaving mill or knitting mill. (Furthermore, it is converted into a fabric on a weaving or knitting factory.) The next stage, called finishing, includes various mechanical and chemical processes for (next stage, called trim, includes a variety of mechanical and chemical processes for):
- Removal of defects or foreign matter (removal of defects or trash).
- Bleaching (whitening).
- Removal of moisture (moisture removal).
- Dyeing (dyeing).
- Printing (printing).
The appearance of the fabric may also be improved by napping, shearing, pressing, brushing, and polishing. (The appearance of the tissue may also improve napping, shearing cloth, pressing, cleaning and polishing.)
After finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery to (after finishing woven fabric ready for delivery):
- A manufacturer of textile products such as clothing, household linens and bedding, upholstery, rugs and carpets. (Manufacturer of textile products such as clothing, linen fabrics and piece goods household items, bedding, upholstery, carpeting and rugs).
- A retailer, who sells it to individuals to make clothes or household articles such as curtains. (Retailer, which sells it to the people for clothing or household items, such as curtains.)
Various techniques and processes are used to produce fibres of different qualities (for the production of fibers of different quality using different methods and processes):
- Acetate (acetate fabric).
- Cotton (cotton).
- Linen (linen cloth).
- Nylon (Nylon).
- Polyester (Polyester).
- Rayon (viscose, rayon).
- Silk (silk).
- Wool (wool).
Techniques and processes
- Blending (mixing).
- Braiding (weaving).
- Carding (combing, teasing).
- Embroidering (embroidery).
- Fibre processing (Fibre Treatment).
- Knitting (crochet).
- Lace-making (lace-making, production of laces).
- Net-making (setevyazanie).
- Spinning (spinning).
- Weaving (weaving process).
Qualities of fibres
- Ability to withstand laundering or dry-cleaning (the ability to withstand washing or dry cleaning).
- Absorption (absorption).
- Crease control (control of folds).
- Elasticity (elasticity).
- Fineness (high quality).
- Flexibility (flexibility, elasticity).
- Length (length).
- Reaction to heat and light (reaction to heat and light).
- Shrinking control (control of compression).
- Strength (resistance to deformation).
- Wash and wear (which does not require ironing after washing).
Looking after your fabrics is important if you want to make them last. Care labels tell you about (If you want the fabric lasts long after it is necessary to watch. The labels on the clothes tell you this):
|Washing (laundry)||Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature (maximum temperature of the wash)|
|Bleaching (whitening)||Means that chlorine bleach may be used (Permitted laundry bleach containing chlorine)|
|Ironing (ironing)||Means that a hot iron may be used (Can be ironed)|
|Dry-cleaning (dry cleaning)||Indicates that the garment must be professionally cleaned (Indicates that the clothes need professional cleaning)|
|Tumble drying (drying in a rotating drum)||Means that the garment may be tumble dried (Can be dried in rotating drum)|
And now we offer to perform the following tasks.
- Read the information above. Mark the following statements T (true) or F (false). Give reasons.
- A textile is a fabric always made from fibres.
- All fibres are suitable for textile purposes.
- Filament is a fibre of continuous length.
- Staple is a fibre of limited length.
- Fibres can be spun into yarn or made into fabrics.
- Classify the following fabrics into their fibre type — natural (N) or synthetic (S). Then choose from the box below which characteristics best describe each fabtic.
Fabric Fibre type Characteristics Cotton Linen Nylon Polyester Silk Wool a) Good insulator; luxurious, soft to the touch.
b) Good strength, twice as strong as cotton; crisp to the touch.
c) Lightweight; easy to wash; resists shrinkage and wrinkling.
d) Luxurious; thinnest of all natural fibres.
e) Soft to the touch; absorbent.
f) Strong; resistant to most chemicals.
- Below are the instructions for how to look after your fabrics. Complete the texts using the words below.
* Dry-cleanable, * drying, * hand-washable, * machine-washable, * shrinkage, * stain, * stretching, * sunlight
When caring for your fabrics, remember that:
is easy to care for. It is (a) ______ and dry-cleanable and has good colour retention.
is twice as strong as cotton and hand-washable or (b) ______.
is (c) _____ or dry-cleanable, but has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to (d) ______.
is easy to wash, resist (e) ______ and wrinkling, is fast (f) ______, but has poor resistance to continuous sunlight.
is resistant to (g) ______; can be washed or dry-cleaned; is quick drying and wrinkle resistant; because of its low absorbency, (h) ______ removal can be a problem.
However, we have not mentioned another kind of tissue — «intelligent fabrics» (intelligent fabrics). We bring you the video on this topic:
It’s the fashion show season, and in parallel, Paris has been hosting the largest textile show in the world — «Premiere Vision». Seven hundred and forty-two exhibitors from thirty countries presented their offerings for the «Autumn — Winter 2007-2008» seasons. And this year some special guests — so-called intelligent fabrics — textiles, for example, that have built-in protection against staining.
- Intelligent fabrics — intelligent fabric.
- Built-in protection against staining — «built-in» protection against stains.
If we imagine normal cloth being flat, with nanotechnologies the cloth takes a form a little like mountain. The structure’s invisible, of course, and dirt can not stick to a material like that. It runs off. So, here I’ll put a bit of ketchup on and I’ll take some water and there you see it’s a white cloth, and you can rinse off the dirt immediately.
- Flat — flat.
- Invisible — invisible.
- Dirt can not stick to a material — dirt does not stick to the material.
- To run off — drain.
- To rinse off the dirt — wash away dirt
Stain resistant materials, bacteria resistant materials, mosquito resistant materials, materials that can absorb smell or reduce perspiration. Materials that can measure your heart beat, or your breathing pattern. Textiles that are totally impermeable, textiles that are ultra absorbent, cosmetic textiles that moisten the skin, or apply perfume.
- Stain resistant material — gryazestoyky material.
- Bacteria resistant material — anti-bacterial material.
- Mosquito resistant materials — anti-mosquito stuff.
- Absorb smell — to absorb the smell.
- Reduce perspiration — to reduce sweating.
- Impermeable — sealed, impermeable.
- Moisten the ski n — moisturize the skin.
The world of intelligent textiles is expanding and a multitude of European research centres are part of it.
Here at Centexbel in Belgium, not far from Liege, scientists are dreaming of the next generation of intelligent or functional textiles. Prototype maker Martin Delgeder’s job is to transform these dreams into reality.
- Transform into reality — into reality.
Here we have a pullover that’s entirely knitted. The keyboard is supple. It enables the user to send a range of different commands. It was conceived for handicapped people, to allow them, for example, with a given code to open a garage door, to switch on the television. We’ve also got undergarments that allow you to monitor different body functions: breathing, heartbeat and so on using electrodes that are in direct contact with the body. We can also insert fibre optics into carpet. They are integrated in the production process to make the carpet luminous. They can be used for emergency exit, for example, if there’s a power-cut, or just to create putty patterns within the carpet. We’ve also used fibre optics in knitting. This creates the possibility of luminous knitwear. It can be used for outdoor safety clothing, or it can be stuck on walls and ceilings for decorative effects.
- Supple — soft, elastic.
- It was conceived … — it was designed …
- Handicapped people — people with disabilities.
- Undergarment — underwear.
- Fibre optics — fiber optics.
- Power-cut — power cut.
- Putty — a yellowish-gray.
- Luminous knitwear — luminous knitted garments.
The most complex of these prototypes is probably the textile keyboard which can also function as a simple calculator. Jean Leonard has spent two years working on it. The key, and the interaction of materials that do and do not conduct electricity.
In addition to the conventional materials, which are electrical insulators we’ve used metallic fibres that do conduct electricity. The principle is that when you do not apply pressure, there is no contact between two conducting layers. And when you apply pressure, you create a contact between the two layers. In addition to this, there’s a small micro electric component which has been miniaturized as much as possible, so that it disrupts the cloth as little as possible, because the goal is to preserve the characteristics of the textiles: suppleness and comfort.
Suppleness and comfort — those are watchwords for functional and intelligent clothing. Yvette Rogister is in charge of the microbiology lab at the centre. She unlocks the secrets of textiles using this giant microscope. Her research helps to build an understanding how fibres react to the presence of certain nanoparticles. For example, cosmetic nanoparticles that release perfumes into clothes.
- Electrical insulators — electrical insulator.
- Conventional materials — material based on classical techniques.
- To disrupt — to break.
- Suppleness — elasticity.
There are microcapsules which contain a perfume that’s integrated within the fibres that make up the cloth. What we’ve been looking at here, is how uniformly the microcapsules are spread across the cloth. And also we wanted to have an idea of their dimensions. And then, after the material’s being used, we wanted to see how the microcapsules react, they are supposed to explode and release the perfume.
And in fact, what we’ve seen here is that they are indeed microcapsules that have exploded and thus released their perfume.
- Spread across — scattered.
- Dimension — size.
- To explode — explode.
- To release — release, release.
At the «Institut Francias du Textile et de l’habillement» outside Lyons intelligent textiles are tested for resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids. Engineers work on several Europe-wide projects and also invent their own textiles for the future. Once the concept has been established, the cloth is modeled to a chosen design; and added to a virtual collection of tomorrow’s fashion. The dreams to become a reality, you need a plasma machine like this. Here, in a vacuum, textiles are put in contact with different gases: oxygen, nitrogen, fluoride, or ammonia. In this way researcher Jack Makeone changes the textile properties. Fluorides, for example, make normally absorbent cotton impermeable, while nitrogen makes normally resistant materials absorbent. Nitrogen will separate off and try to impregnate itself in the textiles, so using nitrogen gas you can make a kind of water plasma which will attach itself to the surface. And when you put water next to this, there is a very strong affinity and that makes the material that absorbs very easily, which is good for cleaning materials or for absorbing sweat, or for sticky materials or for printable materials. On the other hand, fluoride gas makes cotton water-resistant, so when it rains, it’s impermeable, but still comfortable.
- Resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids — stability with respect to heat, fire, wear liquid.
- Oxygen — oxygen.
- Nitrogen — Nitrogen.
- Fluoride — fluoride.
- Ammonia — Ammonia.
- To separate off — separated.
- To impregnate — saturate, fill.
- Affinity — similarity.
In these workshops a European programme to make threads of the future is being researched. Christophe Angelloz is developing polypropylene thread that resists high temperatures. The polypropylene is mixed with chemical microparticles whose composition is a commercial secret. The mixture is pummelled, melted, stretched and woven into yarn.
It’s all polypropylene, but by changing the manufacturing conditions like the extrusion temperature, the weaving speed, the stretching tension you can optimize the thread production.
Threads with like others made at the centre will now undergo testing to see if they might be useful in the creation of the new intelligent textiles of the future.
- Workshop — shop.
- Polypropylene thread — polypropylene filament.
- To pummel — processing, ramming.
- To melt — melt.
- To stretch — stretch.
- Extrusion temperature — temperature synthetic fiber spinning.