From the previous articles of our blog you already know what types of interrogative sentences exist in the English language, and how such proposals are. In addition, you are probably already familiar with all the times that can be used in the English language. On our site you can find a summary table of all time. By combining these two topics, you will learn how to easily build different types of interrogative sentences in different times.
So, let us recall that in the English language release 5 main types of questions:
- General questions (general questions);
- Special issues (special questions);
- Questions to the subject (questions to the subject);
- Isolating issues (tag questions / disjunctive questions);
- Alternative questions (alternative questions).
Next, let’s deal with each of these types, but before that, we introduce the notation that will be used in the tables:
- S — subject — the subject (it can be expressed by a pronoun, a noun, gerund).
- V — verb — a verb.
- V2 — verb2 — the second form of the verb or verb ending — ed, if it is the right verb.
- Ving — verb ing — verb with the ending — ing.
- V3 — verb3 — the third form of a verb or a verb with the ending — ed, if it is the right verb.
- Wh — question word.
In each of the cells of these tables have a common formula for constructing and example for clarity.
And now look, in fact, how to construct each type of question.
Let us examine first the general questions, those questions that can be answered either «yes» or «no.» To construct these questions auxiliary verb shall be made in the first place. Here’s how it will look in different times:
|Present||Do (does) + S + V||To be (am / is / are) + S + Ving||Have / has + S + V3||Have / has + S + been + Ving|
|Do you work here?||Are you working here?||Have you worked here?||Have you been working here?|
|Past||Did + S + V||To be (was / were) + S + Ving||Had + S + V3||Had + S + been + Ving|
|Did you work here?||Were you working here?||Had you worked here?||Had you been working here?|
|Future||Will + S + V||Will + S + be + Ving||Will + S + have + V3||Will + S + have + been + Ving|
|Will you work here?||Will you be working here?||Will you have worked here?||Will you have been working here?|
Recall that the choice of auxiliary verbs am / is / are, do / does, have / has depends on the person subject to this proposal, that is, if the subject acts as a pronoun in the third person singular, the verb to be take the form is, the verb to do — does, and the verb to have — has respectively.
Having examined the general principles of the common issues, we move on to specific issues. Fortunately, the scheme of construction of this type of question is virtually identical to the circuits of the common issues. The only difference is that at the beginning of such a proposal is put the question word (why, what, where, when, whose, which, whom, how), or interrogative design (what time, what kind of / what sort of, how often, how long, how many / how much, how old, with whom, etc.) Such questions can not be answered simply «yes» or «no.»
Here’s how it looks:
|Present||Wh + do (does) + S + V||Wh + to be (am / is / are) + S + Ving||Wh + have / has + S + V3||Wh + have / has + S + been + Ving|
|Where do you work?||Where are you working?||Where have you worked?||Where have you been working?|
|Past||Wh + did + S + V||Wh + to be (was / were) + S + Ving||Wh + had + S + V3||Wh + had + S + been + Ving|
|Where did you work?||Where were you working?||Where had you worked?||Where had you been working?|
|Future||Wh + will + S + V||Wh + will + S + be + Ving||Wh + will + S + have + V3||Wh + will + S + have + been + Ving|
|Where will you work?||Where will you be working?||Where will you have worked?||Where will you have been working?|
Now look at how matters are being built to the subject. In this type of questions the same as the order of words in the affirmative proposal, and takes place subject to the question word who or what:
|Present||Wh + Vs||Wh + is + Ving||Wh + has + V3||Wh + has + been + Ving|
|Who works here?||Who is working here?||Who has worked here?||Who has been working here?|
|Past||Wh + V2||Wh + was + Ving||Wh + had + V3||Wh + had + been + Ving|
|Who worked here?||Who was working here?||Who had worked here?||Who had been working here?|
|Future||Wh + will + V||Wh + will be + Ving||Wh + will have + V3||Wh + will have + been + Ving|
|Who will work here?||Who will be working here?||Who will have worked here?||Who will have been working here?|
Let us examine the following issues dividing. In these matters, too, retained the direct order of the words, but in the end they put a so-called tail, which can be translated into Russian by the following expressions: is not it? is not it? OK? Yes? etc. Recall that if the first part of this question is yes, then our «tail» is negative, and vice versa. The table below shows a diagram of the construction of the separation issue, when the first part of the affirmative:
|Present||S + V, do / does / is / are + not + S||S + to be (am / is / are) + Ving, are / is + not + S||S + have / has + V3, have / has + not + S||S + have / has + been + Ving, have / has + not + S|
|You work here, do not you?||You are working here, are not you?||You have worked here, have not you?||You have been working here, have not you?|
|Past||S + V2, did / was / were + not + S||S + to be (was / were) + Ving, was / were + not + S||S + had + V3, had + not + S||S + had + been + Ving, had + not + S|
|You worked here, did not you?||You were working here, were not you?||You had worked here, had not you?||You had been working here, had not you?|
|Future||S + will + V, will + not + S||S + will be + Ving, will + not + S||S + will have + V3, will + not + S||S + will have been + Ving, will + not + S|
|You will work here, will not you?||You will be working here, will not you?||You will have worked here, will not you?||You will have been working here, will not you?|
Finally, the fifth type of question in English, the alternative is a choice between the objects, actions, persons etc. In this type of questions present union or (or). If such a question without a question word, it is built on the principle of general problem with the addition of an alternative, the second option. If the question word is present, the circuit construction of this issue is either with a special question, or to the issue to the subject. His separate structure such question has not, so we will not lead to a separate table. For more information about this type of questions you can read in the article «An alternative question in the English language.»
Note that this article is a generalized scheme of constructing questions in English at all times the actual deposit. Each type has its own characteristics, which are illuminated in the relevant articles of our website. However, the above scheme can serve as a basis for the construction of interrogative sentences. Despite the seeming at first glance, the complexity of the formulas given in the tables, they are quite simple and easy to use.
If you are in the process of learning a language like everything to order and divided into categories, such a form of presentation may be useful to you.