In Grammar By Alexandra

Table: plural nouns

Plurals of nouns

In English, a study of the parts of speech, as a noun, almost no problem. The only thing to remember well — this rule plurals. And for the convenience of memory, we present these rules in the table.


On the blog has an article on plural nouns in English, which briefly lists the rules of its formation. This table is a complement to the article. It shows more examples, and it is convenient to use.

When learn all the rules of formation of the plural noun, pass this quiz to test your knowledge.
↓ Download the table (* .pdf, 75 KB)

A method of forming Examples Exclusions
1. + — s a cat — cats
a table — tables
a book — books
2. — s, — ss, — sh, — ch, — tch, — x + — es a bus — buses
a glass — glasses
a brush — brushes
a torch — torches
a match — matches
a box — boxes
3. — y -> — i + — es a fly — flies
an army — armies
a lady — ladies
4. — o + — es a hero — heroes
a potato — potatoes
a torpedo — torpedoes
a piano — pianos
a kilo — kilos
a photo — photos
a video — videos
a flamingo — flamingos (es)
a volcano — volcanos (es)
5. — ay, — ey, — oy + — s a day — days
a key — keys
a boy — boys
6. — f -> — v + — es a wife — wives
a knife — knives
a life — lives
a leaf — leaves
a sheaf — sheaves
a thief — thieves
a calf — calves
a half — halves
a shelf — shelves
a wolf — wolves
a scarf — scarfs (ves)
a wharf — wharfs (ves)
a dwarf — dwarfs (ves)
a hoof — hoofs (ves)
But: chiefs, roofs, safes, cliffs, beliefs
7. Nouns not change according to the rules (Irregular nouns) a man — men
a woman — women
a child — children
a brother — brethren
a foot — feet
a tooth — teeth
a goose — geese
a mouse — mice
a louse — lice
an ox — oxen
8. The form does not change a fish — fish
a deer — deer
a sheep — sheep
a trout — trout
a swine — swine
an aircraft — aircraft
a means — means
a fish — fishes (different species)
9. Nouns Latin origin
a) — us -> — i a stimulus — stimuli
genius — genii
a bonus — bonuses
a virus — viruses
a circus — circuses
a radius — radiuses (radii)
a cactus — cactuses (cacti)
a nucleus — nucleuses (nuclei)
b) — a -> — ae a larva — larvae
an alumna — alumnae
a formula — formulae (formulas)
But: areas, diplomas, arenas
c) — um -> — a a datum — data
a curriculum — curricula
a symposium — symposia (simposiums)
a memorandum — memoranda (memorandums)
a medium — media (mediums)
But: albums, chrysanthemums
d) — ex, — ix -> — ces an index — indices (in mathematics)
an appendix — appendices (in the books)
a codex — codices
an index — indexes (in the books)
an appendix — appendixes (in medicine)
10. Nouns of Greek origin
a) — is -> — es a thesis — theses
a crisis — crises
a analysis — analyses
a basis — bases
a metropolis — metropolises
b) — on -> — a a criterion — criteria
a phenomenon — phenomena
a demon — demons
an electron — electrons
11. Compound nouns a schoolboy — schoolboys
a housewife — housewives
a postman — postmen
1) If the structure includes a pretext:
a mother-in-law — mothers-in-law
a passer-by — passers by
2) If the first word of the man or woman:
a man-servant — men-servants
a woman-doctor — women-doctors
3) If a part is not a noun:
a forget-me-not — forget-me-nots
a merry-go-round — merry-go-rounds
12. Nouns have only the singular form advice
education
hair
information
knowledge
luck
luggage
money
music
news
progress
seaside
shopping
traffic
trouble
weather
work, etc.

Special occasions:

  • Billiards (billiard) — used both in the plural and the singular, requires the use of a singular verb in both cases.
  • Clothes, scissors, spectacles, trousers — are used only in the plural.
  • Contents — used in the plural form in the meaning of the content of anything (boxes, cabinets and so on. D.).
  • Goods — used in the plural form in the meaning of «goods».
  • Optics, physics, politics — often with the verb used in the singular.
  • Riches — the meaning of «wealth» is used with the verb in the plural.
  • Scales — used both in the plural and the singular (in American English often used in singular form, as in the British — in the plural).

 

Grammar

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