Any proposal and its structure is studying grammar section titled «Syntax.» Any proposal, as we know, are the main parts of the sentence, which is what the subject and predicate, and minor. The secondary parts of the sentence are addition (object), the definition of (attribute), circumstance (adverbial modifier). On the first of the minor sentence — about addition — we will talk in this article. To avoid difficulties in understanding the information provided below, I would advise to study amendments to the English again, which is called the transition verbs in English, and some intransitive.
I just remind you that verbs can carry a direct object in English and in Russian. In other words, they can express an action that goes directly to any person or thing. These are verbs that have a direct object, are called transition (transitive verbs). A verb, direct object which can not be called intransitive (intransitive verbs). Examples:
I received an invitation two days ago. — I was invited to two days ago. (to receive — the verb is transitive, since it can carry a direct object — to receive something. In this case, this addition is the word «invitation»)
I arrived two days ago. — I arrived two days ago. (to arrive — intransitive verb, since it has no direct object)
What is an addition in the English language? This part of the sentence that refers to the subject and answer the questions that are in the Russian language relevant issues oblique cases (the remaining five of cases except the nominative: genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, prepositional). These are the questions: whom? — Who ?; what? — What ?; to whom? — To whom ?; by whom? — Who ?; about what? — about what?. What are additions to the English language?
Classification of additions is: addition may be direct (direct object) and indirect (indirect object). And indirectly, in turn, has two variants — bespredlozhnoe indirect complement (indirect object) and indirect prepositional supplement (prepositional object). It is more convenient to consider each supplement separately, so let’s start from the very first — direct object.
The direct object in English
The direct object is an object or person to which the action passes. And the action in this case is expressed by transitive verb in a personal or non-personal form. We put the direct object in English after the verb. Direct addition corresponds to the Russian language supplement in the accusative without a preposition, because it speaks to whom? and what?. For example:
I received a new passport two days ago. — I got a new passport two days ago.
But the direct object may also correspond to the Russian and complement in the genitive case (especially if the action concerns only the part of the subject, not the whole thing). For example:
My father gave me some wine. — My father gave me wine.
What parts of speech can be expressed as the direct object in English? On the first noun.
Buy me an ice-cream, please. — Buy me ice cream, please.
The secretary gave the mail to the boss. — Secretary of mail handed boss.
In second place is the pronoun.
I will never forget you. — I will never forget you.
I did not see him yesterday. — I have not seen him yesterday.
The direct object can be expressed and numerals.
How many tickets did you book? — I booked four. — How many tickets you ordered? I ordered four.
I have watched both movies. I liked the first better than the second. — I watched two movies. I liked the first more than the second.
Show your addition can be infinitive.
She told them to follow her. — She told them to follow her.
I asked them to wait a little. — I asked them to wait a little.
Fifth place is occupied by a gerund.
I remember learning it. — I remember that it is taught.
My husband prefers writing about his feelings and emotions instead of sharing them with someone else. — My husband prefers to write about their feelings and emotions rather than to share them with anyone else.
Definitely a direct object can be not one, but several. All of them form a group of add-ons:
She does not know my new address. — She does not know my new address.
Indirect bespredlozhnoe addition
Indirect bespredlozhnoe addition in the English language expresses the person who is drawn to the action. This supplement is used with transitive verbs, and is often accompanied by a direct object. The question is, which corresponds to an indirect bespredlozhnomu complement — to whom? (who?). The Russian language is the indirect object in dative without a preposition. Keep in mind that if there is to offer direct and indirect, the first will be the indirect and direct him.
Show me the new computer. — Show me your new computer. (me — indirectly bespredlozhnoe addition, the new computer — direct object)
I’d like to give my friend something special on her birthday. — I would like to give a friend a birthday something special. (my friend — indirect bespredlozhnoe addition, something special — direct object)
As we can see from these examples, indirect bespredlozhnoe supplement can be expressed as a noun in the common case, and the pronoun in the objective case.
The person against whom action is drawn, can be expressed with the preposition complement to (and for), which is after the direct object. Such an addition is used instead of indirect bespredlozhnogo additions in three situations:
- When the direct object pronoun is expressed:
I’ll give them to your parents. — I’ll give them to your parents. (them — direct object, to your parents — indirectly prepositional complement)
- If the indirect object is composed of a group of long words and the direct object is expressed in one word (or a small group of words):
She has sent a letter to her friend working abroad. — She sent a letter to a friend, work abroad (a letter — a direct object, to her friend working abroad — indirect prepositional complement)
- After some verbs, eg to announce — to declare, to translate — to translate, to repeat — repeat, to declare — declare, to explain — explain, to introduce — represent (familiar), to write — to write, to propose — to offer, to prove — to prove, to describe — to describe and others. After these verbs are always used only indirect prepositional complement.
Why did not you introduce me to your boyfriend? — Why have not you introduced me to the young man? (me — a direct complement, to your boyfriend — indirect prepositional complement)
They arranged a conference for the mayor. — They organized a conference for mayor. (conference — direct addition, for the mayor — prepositional indirect)
Indirect prepositional complement
Indirect prepositional complement in English differs from bespredlozhnogo that, accordingly, it is used with a preposition after many verbs and adjectives, as well as answers to various questions, including about whom? (for whom?), about what? (what?), with whom? (from whom?), for whom? (for whom?) and others.
Prepositional addition to obliquely in English can:
- noun with a preposition:
The secretary reminded everybody about the meeting. — Secretary reminded everyone of the meeting. (everybody — indirect bespredlozhnoe addition, about the meeting — indirect prepositional complement)
Nobody objects to this schedule. — Nobody is against (no objection) of this schedule. (to this schedule — indirect prepositional complement)
Remember, you can always rely on her. — Remember, you can rely on it. (on her — indirect prepositional complement)
Austin shook hands with us. — Austin shook hands with us. (with us — indirect prepositional complement)
- Gerund with a preposition:
I’m fond of reading. — I enjoy reading. (of reading — indirect prepositional complement)
Please note that if there is to offer direct and indirect prepositional supplements will be the first direct object in English.
I celebrated my birthday with friends. — I celebrated the birthday with friends. (my birthday — a direct object, with friends — indirect prepositional complement)
Formal addition it
And finally, a few words about the formal complement it. In English, there are some transitive verbs (for example, to think, to find, to consider, and others.), After which often used the pronoun it. It will be called the formal addition, because it is before the next addition, which is expressed subordinate clause or infinitive trafficking. Its translation into Russian language is not necessary. For example:
I find it strange that you have so much free time. — I find it odd that you have so much free time.
I think it necessary to have your own car. — I believe it necessary to have their own car.