About subordinating conjunctions in English (subordinating conjunctions) I was told in a review article on unions («Unions in the English language»). But the classification of these unions, provided that the material is not complete. More details we consider subordinating conjunctions in this article. As we remember, all the unions of the English language can be divided into two major groups: coordinative and subordinate. The latter need to be connected to the main clause as part of a complex sentence.
Classification of subordinating conjunctions in English
Subordinating conjunctions in English are many, and their classification is vast, and it is built on the basis of what type of subordinate clause adds to the main specific union. We will not deviate from the system list and subordinating conjunctions, illustrated with examples of use, according to their target orientation. If you are not familiar with what types of clauses exist in the English language, or maybe you just want to brush up your knowledge in this area, refer to the following materials — «Relative clauses in English.» It will help you navigate in this very complex subject.
The first group includes associations that introduce clauses subject, predicate, and more. These include that (that), if, whether (if any).
Whether they will choose me to participate in the negotiations is not known yet. — Whether they choose me to take part in the negotiations remains to be seen. (clause subject)
The problem is that I do not know the answer to this question. — The problem is that I do not know the answer to that question. (clause predicate)
I’m afraid that we will be late. — I’m afraid that we’ll be late. (optional clause)
Ask her if she can sign the contract tomorrow. — Ask her if she would sign a contract tomorrow. (optional clause)
The second group we shall place subordinating conjunctions that introduce adverbial clauses. And, as we know, adverbial clauses are different. Clauses when entering the unions after (after), as (while when), as long as (yet until), as soon as (once), before (before), hardly ( scarcely) … when (as soon … both), no sooner … than (as soon … both), since (since), till / until (until … (not)), when (when), while (then as now).
This woman attempted suicide after she lost her mobile phone. — This woman attempted suicide after she lost her cell phone.
As she was returning home, she met her ex-husband. — When she returned home, she met her former husband.
As summer approaches, the days become longer. — As summer approaches, the days are getting longer.
I’ll stay with you as long as you need me. — I’ll be with you as long as I’ll be needed.
As soon as she arrives, we’ll have dinner. — As soon as it arrives, we will sit down to dinner.
The mistakes must be corrected before the book is published. — Errors must be corrected before the book published.
We had hardly come home when it began to snow. — As soon as we had just arrived home when it began to snow.
I had scarcely solved one problem when another cropped up. — As soon as I solved a problem as there was another.
No sooner had she started to read the book than she fell asleep. — As soon as she began to read the book as a sleep.
Where have you been working since we parted? — Where have you been working with since we parted?
Untill you get prepared for your exam, do not even think about going out. — As long as you are ready for the exam, do not even think about how to go somewhere.
I will not leave till I have written this chapter. — I’m not leaving until I shall add this chapter.
My mother does not know when I came home. — Mom does not know when I came home.
While I was in France, I managed to visit a lot of sights. — While I was in France, I was able to visit many attractions.
Clauses reasons introduced following subordinating conjunctions in English: as (since), because (because, since), for (since), now … that (now that, as), on the ground that (on the basis it), seeing … that (because, taking into account that), since (because, since).
As I have not bought all the necessary stuff, we can not set off on a trip. — Since I have not bought everything you need, we can not go on a trip.
He is upset because his girlfriend broke up with him. — He’s upset because he threw the girl.
He was working very hard for he had to finish his work in time. — He worked hard, as he had to finish the job on time.
Now that I know you, it is different. — Now that I have learned, everything changed.
Dismissal on the ground that an employee is too young is unlawful age discrimination. — The dismissal on the grounds that the employee is too young illegal age discrimination.
Seeing that she refuses I can not imagine what else we can do. — Because she refuses, I can not imagine what else we can do.
Since we did not decide what to do on Friday, let’s go for a walk. — Since we have not decided what to do on Friday, let’s go for a walk.
The next clauses conditions. List unions, which they are administered, not too small: if (when), in case (if, if), once (once standing alone … like), on condition that (provided if), provided that / providing that (if provided), so long as / as long as (unless, provided), supposing that (if, say that, suppose), unless (… if not, unless).
I’m sure he will understand if you explain the situation to him. — I’m sure he will understand if you explain the situation to him.
In case you meet her, please, tell her about our new client. — If you meet her, tell her about our new client.
Here are ten things the bride will no longer be allowed to do once she marries him. — Here are ten things that the bride is no longer allowed to do, as soon as she would marry him.
I will lend you $ 1000 on condition that it is repaid within a month. — I’ll lend you a thousand dollars, provided you return them to me for a month.
We will come provided that we get invitation. — We will come, provided we get the invitation.
Let him speak so long as he does it nicely. — Give him to say, provided that it is precisely to deal with that.
Supposing that you failed in your exam, what will you do? — Let’s say you failed the exam, what will you do?
Unless you start immediately, you will not get there in time. — Unless you go immediately, you do not get there in time.
Go to the subordinate clause purpose. They attached subordinating conjunctions for fear that / lest (not to …), that / so that / in order that (to, to).
He was running fast for fear that he might miss the train. — He ran quickly to not miss the train.
I hid lest I should be caught. — I hid that I was not caught.
We dressed ourselves up so that no one could recognize us. — We dressed up, so that none of us did not recognize.
She came home late at night in order that her husband did not see her. — She came home late that her husband did not see it.
Subordinating conjunctions in English, introducing clauses of manner — this word as (like), as if / as though (seems as if), so … that (as such that), such … that (such a … what).
She’ll treat you as you treated her. — She will treat you the way you treated her.
They looked as if they had seen a ghost. — She looked as though she had seen a ghost.
My daughter is so naive that she believes everyone. — My daughter so naive that he believes everyone.
Universal love is such a drug that not anyone can endure it. — Universal love — is a drug that not everyone can stand it.
With subordinative so that, but in the sense of «so what», we introduce the clauses of the investigation.
The last exam was passed on Friday so that we were able to celebrate the end of a school year at weekends. — The last exam was delivered on Friday, so that at the weekend we were able to celebrate the end of the school year.
To enter the clauses of comparison we take such alliances as as … as (well, same as …), not so … as (not … like … like not so), than (what).
He can not do it as quickly as I can. — He can not do it as fast as I can.
You are not so pretty as I imagined you. — You’re not so sweet as I imagined.
Do not promise more than you can do. — Do not promise more than you can do.
We stayed another kind of subordinate clauses — clauses concessive. They are attached to the main using unions in spite of the fact that (despite that), notwithstanding that (though), though / although (though).
In spite of the fact that the weather was cold, she went for a walk. — Despite the fact that it was cold, she went for a walk.
I did it myself notwithstanding that you forbade me to do this. — I did myself, in spite of what you forbade me to do it.
I respect them though I do not like them. — I respect them, but not love.
She is competent in her profession although her higher education is incomplete. — It is competent in his profession, although it has incomplete higher education.
This topic is closely related to the other as described in the articles that need to pay attention:
- «Unions in the English language»
- «Like and as are in the English language»
- «Coordinative conjunctions in English»
After reading them, we recommend to pass the following test: «The test for unions in the use of the English sentence.»