In Grammar By Oksana

Subjunctive forms in a complex sentence in schemes

We have attempted to introduce the use of the subjunctive in a simple sentence in the form of a table. Now try to make a similar pattern (patterns) to complex sentences.


First, find out what are the different forms of the subjunctive in English. We propose to allocate four: Subjunctive I Mood, Subjunctive Mood II, Suppositional Mood, Conditional Mood. (It should be noted that not all linguists adhere to this classification, in different textbooks on grammar, it may be different).

Imagine the subjunctive form of the table.

Forms subjunctive (The Forms of the Subjunctive Mood)

1. Subjunctive I Mood = to Infinitive
Success attend you!
Yes accompanies you luck!
2. Subjunctive Mood II
Present = Past Indefinite
I wish he were present.
It is a pity that he was not present.
It’s high time you did your flat.
You it’s time to clean the apartment.
Past = Past Perfect
I wish she had gone to England last year.
It is a pity that she did not go to England last year.
3. Suppositional Mood
Present = should + Indefinite Infinitive
I insist that you should work hard.
I urge you to work hard.
Past = should + Perfect Infinitive
(rarely used!)
It’s important that you should have been present at the meeting.
It is important that if you attended the meeting.
4. Conditional Mood
Present = would / should + Indefinite Infinitive
If it were warm, we would go to the park.
If it was warm, we would have gone to the park. (refers to date)
Past = would / should + Perfect Infinitive
If I had worked harder last year, I would have got an excellent mark at the exam.
If I worked harder in the year, I would have gotten a perfect score on the exam.

Now consider the use of these forms in a complex sentence.

Use of Subjunctive Mood II, Conditional Mood

I. Conditional sentences (Subjunctive II + Conditional)

Remember this formula, you will never be confused for a moment where you need to use:

did should / would do
If smb. smth. smb. smth.
had done should / would have done
  1. If he came 1 earlier, we should go 2 to the cinema — If he had come earlier, we would have gone to the movies. (today or tomorrow)

    1 Subjunctive II (Present)
    2 Conditional (Present)

  2. If he had come 1 earlier, we should have gone 2 to the cinema. — If he had come earlier, we would have gone to the movies. (refers to the past, he did not come; in the movie and did not go)

    1 Subjunctive II (Past)
    2 Conditional (Past)

Note that sometimes when expressing unrealistic conditions (unreal condition) may be used mixed forms:

  1. Subjunctive II (Present) + Conditional (Past):

    If she were not absent minded, she would not have lost the book — if it had not been cleared, it would not have lost the book. (it is, in principle, always scattered, so the Present)

  2. Subjunctive II (Past) + Conditional (Present):

    If he had not missed the seminar, he would be answering well now — If he had not skipped a workshop, now would be a good answer.

II. Expressions wish

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. did
I / smb. smth.
had done

I wish she were here. — It is a pity that she is not here.

I wish / wished she had been there. — It is a pity that she was not there.

If we want to make the proposal more expressive (more emphatic), you can use the following formula:

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. would do
I / smb. smth.
would have done

I wish you would have studied better last year. — What a pity that you did not study that year is better.

III. The paranasal predicates (predicative clauses) and comparison (comparative clauses) with as if, as though

said
sounded
looks (-ed)
seems (-ed)
speaks (spoke)
feels (felt)
is (was)
as if
as though
(as if)
did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

He feels as if he were falling ill. — He feels as if he is going to get sick.

She speaks English as though she had lived in England all her life. — She speaks English as if all her life in England.

IV. The subjective subordinate clauses (in subject clauses)

a). With as if, as though:

is not
was not
will not
(after all)
as if
as though
did
It smb. smth.
had done

It is not as if you knew him. — Because you did not know him.

b). With expressions of it’s time, it’s about time, it’s high time:

time (it is time)
about time (almost time)
high time (long overdue)
smb. did
It is smth.

Please note that these proposals only used Subjunctive II Present.

It’s high time you knew Grammar well. — You are well past the time to know the grammar.

V. In other subordinate clauses (in object clauses)

had
would
rather did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

I would rather you went away now. — I would prefer that you are now gone.

She would rather you had stayed. — She would prefer that you then left. — It belongs to the past.

Use Suppositional Mood, Subjunctive I Mood

I. In the subjective subordinate clauses (in subject clauses)

is
was
will be
necessary
important
desirable
requested
demanded
advisable
arranged
ordered
commanded
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. do

It is necessary that you should come a couple of days before the others. — It is necessary for you to come two days earlier than everyone else.

is
was
natural
understandable
characteristic
surprising
strange
curious
odd
doubtful
impossible
unpleasant
a pity
a shame
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. should have done

It is odd (strange) that she should have objected against the proposal. — It is strange that she objected to this proposal.

Note that in declarative sentences (declarative sentences) with the possible, probable, likely using modal verbs may, might, can, could:

It is possible the key may be lost. — It is possible that the key was lost.

But of question (interrogative) and negative (negative) offers used should + infinitive:

It is not possible that he should have guessed it. — It is impossible that he guessed.

Is it possible that he should refuse to come? — Is it possible that he refused to come?

II. In further subordinate clauses (in object clauses)

to suggest
to demand
to insist
to order
to arrange
to request
to advise …
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

He suggested that we should start the meeting at once. — He suggested that once the meeting.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find
it necessary
important
desirable
advisable …
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

I believe it desirable that you should read the book. — I think it desirable that you have read the book.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find …
it natural
strange
odd
pleasant
unpleasant
possible
impossible
curious …
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I believe it natural that he should like his job. — I consider it natural that he likes his job.

They find it curious that he should have refused from the proposal. — They think it strange that he refused the offer.

to be astonished
to be sorry
to be pleased …
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I’m astonished that she should have said this. — I was very surprised that she said it.

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy …
smb. should do
lest smb. should have done smth.
smb. do

I’m afraid lest it should be too late. — I’m afraid it’s too late.

If the clause is introduced Union that, then:

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy …
smb. may, might, can, could do
that smth.
smb. may, might, can, could have done

I’m afraid that he may be ill. — I am afraid that he is ill.
I was afraid that he might be ill. — I was afraid that he was ill.

I’m afraid that he may have missed the train. — I’m afraid that he missed the train.
I was afraid that he might have missed the train. — I was afraid that he was late for the train.

III. The paranasal predicates (predicative clauses)

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement …
is
was
will be
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

The order was that we should leave the room. — The order was the fact that we left the room.

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

Her constant fear is lest there should be something wrong with the child’s health. — Its constant fear is that nothing happened to the health of her child.

If the clause is introduced Union that, then:

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

Her only fear is that there may be something wrong with her ​​the child’s health. — The only thing she fears that the health of her child might have something happen.

IV. The paranasal attributive (in attributive clauses)

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement …
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

He gave an order that nobody should leave the room. — He gave orders that no one left the room.

fear
worry
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

She had a constant fear lest something should happen to her child. — She was always afraid that nothing had happened to her child.

If the clause is introduced Union that, then:

fear
worry
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

She had a constant fear that something might happen to her child. — She was always afraid that something might happen to her child.

V. In the paranasal goals (in clauses of purpose)

to do smth. lest
(not)
smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

Do it at once, lest she should change her mind. — Do it now, so she could change her mind.

If the clause is introduced unions so that, that, in order that, then:

to do smth. so that
that
in order that
smb. may, might, can, could do
may, might, can, could not do
smth.

I shall make you some sandwiches so that you can (may) not be hungry. — I’ll make you a sandwich, so you will not feel hungry.

He gave me some money that I could buy two magazines. — He gave me money so I could buy two magazines.

And now I suggest a little test to check the methods described above use the subjunctive mood:

 

Grammar

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>