In Science By Victoria

Rules of reading English: vowels

In a previous article «Rules of English reading: consonants,» we looked at the basic rules of reading consonants. Do not think, just remember them, you will correctly read any English word. Be sure to come across an unfamiliar word that is not read by the rule. But yes, 90% of the vocabulary that you conquer. In any case, knowing these patterns of reading different letter combinations, you can guess how the word you read. And if you doubt still look in the dictionary.

Rules of reading English: vowels

  1. The first letter A in the queue. What sounds it can produce?
    • [ei] in the open stressed syllable in combinations ai, ay, and before the combination of letters ange: baker, crane, cable, gain, rain, bay, stay, change, dangerous. Among the exceptions: many, have, said.
    • in combinations ai, ay, age unstressed syllables in this letter gives the sound [i]: Sunday, carriage, captain, storage.
    • [æ] in closed syllables: cap, dangle, factor, hatch, rash, rat.
    • [Ɔ] in a closed syllable after w, wh: wad, waffle, what.
    • [Ə] in unstressed syllables: myopia, pasta, regalia.
    • [ƐƏ] combinations in air, are: hair, bare, pair, rare, stair, mare.
    • [a:] in the combinations ar, aft, ass, ance, ast, ath, ans, ask, ant, alf, anch: card, barge, craft, after, grass, bass, dance, glance, last, past, rather, father, answer, bask, task, plant, grant, half, calf, branch. Among the exceptions: mass, gather, pathos.
    • [Ɔ:] in front of l or l + consonant as well as in combinations au, aw, aught, auth, war, quar: call, football, altogether, paunch, law, caught, authority, warble, quart, quarterly.
  2. The second letter will be about. Its range of sounds is as follows:
    • [ou] in an open stressed syllable, before the letter l, the combination of letters ll, ld, st, as well as in combination oa and ow (at the end of words): so, ago, note, provoke, rose, enroll, bold, coat, oath, oat, road, boast, show, mow, blow, most, post. Among the exceptions: do, does, who, now, how, cost, lost.
    • [Ɔ] closed stressed syllable: plot, fox, spot, knot, drop.
    • [u:] in conjunction oo: moon, afternoon, poop, rooter. Exceptions: good, wood, foot, etc.
    • [u] in conjunction oo, but before the letter k: cook, look, brook, hookey, nook, rookie.
    • [au] in combination ou, ow in the middle of a word: gown, clown, crown, crowd, about, cloud, proud, bound. Among the exceptions: enough, country, double, touch, young, bowl.
    • [Ɔi] in combination oi, oy: choice, voice, boil, spoil, enjoy, loyal, toy.
    • [Ɔ:] in combination or in the shock position, as well as combinations oor, ore, oar, ough + t, and our (in the middle of a word): fort, corn, boring, torn, adore, floor, door, therefore, more, board, bought, fought, sought, source, mourn, course, pour. Among the exceptions: poor, moor, courage. The combination of our unstressed and may produce a different sound — [auƏ]: hour, sour, lour, but four [fƆ:]. It’s the combination of the end of words transmits sound [Ə], as well as a combination or in unstressed position: neighbour, labour, doctor, creator, illustrator.
    • [Əs] — that is what we read at the end of a combination ous words: glamorous, tremendous, curious.
    • [Ə:] — is a combination of reading wor in the shock position: world, workable, worse, worship. Exception: worn [wƆ: n].
    • [ᴧ] — a sound occurs when reading combinations oth, on, om, ov unstressed: mother, other, month, son, some, become, lover, dove. Note: both [bouƟ].
  3. Next vowel read the rules of the English language — the letter E. What we can meet the sound in her presence:
    • [I:] in an open stressed syllable and combinations ee, ea: be, fetor, Steve, feel, peel, teeth, seem, breathe, dean, meal, peace. Among the exceptions: great [greit].
    • [e] in the closed stressed syllable or in combination before the letters ea d, n, and the combination of letters th, sure: nest, pet, mental, spread, steady, feather, weather, measure, treasure, meant, cleanser. Among the exceptions: read [ri: d], lead [li: d].
    • [ei] in combination ei, ey in the stressed syllable: prey, convey, eight, freighter.
    • [ju] read with combinations eu, ew: few, nephew, Europe, deuterium.
    • [Ə:] should be read in conjunction er in the stressed syllable, and ear, followed by a consonant: deserve, Berlin, mercy, earth, pearl, dearth. Among the exceptions: heart [ha: t]. If the combination er is in unstressed position, there is the same sound, just a short rather than long [Ə]: limber, answer, producer, perhaps.
    • [iƏ] will say the combination ear, eer, ere: near, dear, fear, career, steer, here, hemisphere. Among the exceptions: bear [beƏ], there [ƐƏ], were [wƏ:].
    • [i] — exactly will read the letter E in open unstressed syllables (including combination er), in combination et and ey the end of words: prevent, erect, exact, regret, restore, regress, bonnet, planet, closet, journey, attorney , honey.
  4. Go to the vowels I. In addition to the alphabetical reading this vowel also produces other sounds:
    • [ai] in stressed open syllable, ie combined at the end of monosyllabic words and letter combinations before such as nd, ld, gn, gh : Prime, kite, bite, die, blind, mind, wind (round), child, wild, design, sign, sigh, high, fight, bright. Among the exceptions: wind [wind] — wind, gild [gild], live, forgive, cinema.
    • closed stressed syllable and unstressed position of this letter is read as [i]: brick, risk, whist, testimony, handiwork, inclusion.
    • long sound [i:] is obtained by reading the combination ie from the middle of the root words: field, priest, grief, believe. Exception: friend [frend].
    • [Ɛ:] requires a combination of ir in the shock position: stir, first, thirty, girl.
    • [aiƏ] in combination ire, ia, io : Desire, mire, diagnosis, bias, violinist, riot.
  5. The penultimate vowel becomes Y. It has five different sounds in different cases:
    • [ai] in stressed open syllable: cry, lye, byway, cynosure.
    • [i] in the closed stressed syllable and unstressed in the open: mystery, syntax, randy, oily, quandary. But: apply [Ə’plai]
    • combined yr + consonant sound is [Ɛ:]: myrtle. And in the same combination only in the company, followed by a vowel sound we get [aiƏ]: lyre, pyre, gyration.
    • [j] at the beginning of a word before a vowel: yard, yellow, yawl, youth, yet, yolk.
  6. Finally, the letter U. What you should know about the products it sounds?
    • [ju] shock in the open syllable: puce, mute, lurid, fuel, cucumber.
    • [ᴧ] in closed syllables: publicity, pug, mug, mustard, butter, fun, hurry. Among the exceptions: put, push, pull, full, etc.
    • [Ɛ:] ur combined in the accented syllable: purpose, purse, hurl, urban, urge. But: current [‘kᴧrƏnt].
    • and the same combination, but in unstressed syllables, as well as in the unstressed position just in words, to read this letter [Ə]: suggest, supply, mustache, suppose. Note: mercury [‘mƏ: kjuri].
    • [juƏ] before the letter r, and the subsequent consonant: pure, furious, mural. But: sure [ʃuƏ].
    • [u:] after the letters l, r, j in combination ue, ui: true, blue, juice.

If you are a teacher (English by Skype), the study of this material does not cause problems, that dedicate a maximum of one session. In fact, read the rules of the English language is not as difficult as it might seem at first. Just a lot of them, and the same exceptions. That is why the difficulties arise when we try to read in English. But everything comes with experience. And you can learn how to read!



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>