Learn how to read in English — is not easy. But as you know, nothing is impossible. Knowledge of certain theoretical data, spent in practice will help you in the future right to read every English word, even strangers. What should I know about English phonetics? Of course, you should be familiar with the alphabet of the English language and reading each letter of the alphabet. In this article you will learn that the 20 English letters 44 reproduce sound.
The second step is to study the transcription of the English language — the system by which the characters recorded sound of any English words. Do not be tempted to write the words of the letters of the Russian alphabet, any benefit from this case is not, but only harm. Remember that in the English language is necessary to remember not only the reading of almost every letter by itself, but combinations of letters and reading. And, of course, need to learn how to break words into syllables, and to determine which style to us, because the rules of the English language reading depend on the type of style. For more information about the syllables you can read in this article — «The types of syllables in the English language.»
Rules read English I dedicate two articles, because a lot of information. We will talk separately about reading of vowels and consonants.
Rules of reading English: consonants
- The s read [s] at the beginning of words before and after the voiceless consonant in combination ss: save, sudden, spouse, caps, tips, best, less, chess, guess. The same letter is read [z] between vowels, after vowels and voiced consonants at the end of words: close, choose, prays, photos, cells, pins, beds .Sochetanie sh we read [ʃ]: shelf, shock, shut, cash, mushroom , dish. Combining ssion read [ʃƏn]: depression, discussion, admission.
- Letter c read [s] before vowels e, i, y: cereal, cease, centre, pace , City, circuit, cyber, cynic. In other cases, this letter is pronounced [k]: concrete, crash, clear, coast, carbon, cripple, curious. Combining ck pronounced [k]: stick, pick, black, deck, lack, crack. The combination ch, tch read [tʃ]: chase, child, chance, beach, peach, switch, stitch. Combination of letters — cial read [ʃƏl]: racial, social, facial .Bukvosochetanie — cient read [ʃent]: proficient, efficient, deficient.
- Letter g to read [dƷ] before vowels e, i, y: cage, beige, gypsy, gymnastics, ginger, gigantic. Not according to the rule: gifted, giggle, girl, give, etc. In other cases, pronounced [g]: good, grey, gold, glamor, graceful, gut. The combination ng need to read nasal [ŋ]: sting, cling, England, bring, long .Sochetanie nk read [ŋk]: link, pink, think. But combined kn at the beginning of the first letter of a word is not pronounced: knight, knee, knead.
- We pronounce the letter x [gz] before the stressed vowel: examination, example, exotic, executor . In other embodiments, it is [ks]: exception, expertise, extravagant, mix, linx.
- Th combination of letters will be pronounced in two ways:
- [Ɵ] at the beginning and end of most significant words: throw, blacksmith, through, threat, thesis.
- [ð] in the function words, adverbs, pronouns, and between two vowels: that, their, those, thus.
- Ph combination of letters to be read [f]: phone, phantom, phoenix, phrase.
- The combination of letters wr first letter does not need to read: write, wring, wrong, wretched, wrinkle.
- A combined wh read only the first letter: why, what, whisky, whether, whisper. But if it is a combination of the letter before, read the second letter: who, whoop, whole, whose.
- We read the letter j [dƷ]: jacket, joy, jingle, joker, jeep, journey.
- Ture combination of letters pronounce [tʃƏ]: gesture, creature, mixture, torture.
And here is the «dumb» unpronounceable consonants read in the rules of the English language. Here are the letters can not be read in the following combination of letters:
- b in the bt, mb: doubt, climb, dumb.
- g in the gn, gm: sign, paradigm.
- gh to gh, igh: sigh, high, fight, bright. But: laugh, enough, cough.
- l in the lf, alk, lm, in verbs (could, should, would): calf, half, chalk, talk, palm, balm. But: gulf.
- n in the mn: autumn, column, damn.
- p at pn, pt: pneumatic, receipt.
- s to the isl: island, isle, aisle.
- t in the ft, st: often, christen, listen.
Do not forget that almost every reader of English rule there are exceptions, so be prepared that you will have to check back in a dictionary reading of a word.