English allows you to convey utterance in two ways: by direct (Direct Speech) and indirect speech (Reported Speech). In the first case we are passing it, for example, another person without any changes. If we turn to the indirect speech in English, the contents of the text which is transmitted from a third party, we will have to change the order of words in a sentence, to take advantage of other temporary shapes, words. How correctly to transform direct speech in a sentence into indirect or competently convey the words of others?
Features indirect speech in English
In indirect speech can be transmitted statements, questions, orders and requests.
1. When it comes to the approval (declarative sentence), we transform it into a clause with the union that. The last time this proposal will undergo some changes according to the rule of tenses. Theme: «The time sequence in the English language» has its own characteristics and rules should be considered separately from the indirect speech. For more information on the harmonization of the time in the English language can be found in the eponymous article on our blog. When you send someone else’s words or thoughts change can relate to the verb, namely its right choice. After all, if the sentence is the person that is accessed, we replace the verb say to tell.
He says, «I am thirsty». — He tells me that he is thirsty.
He says, «I’m thirsty.» — He tells me that he wants to drink.
2. If it is imperative in direct speech, we transform the verb in such sentences in the infinitive in indirect discourse.
The teacher says to the students, «Do all the homework in time». — The teacher asks her students to do all the homework in time.
The teacher tells the students: «Do your homework on time.» — The teacher asks the students to do their homework on time.
The instructor says, «Do not turn on this road». — The instructor warns not to turn on this road.
The instructor said: «It is not necessary to turn on the road.» — The instructor warned me not to turn on this road.
3. When it comes to interrogative sentences (for more details on what are the types of suggestions, you can learn from the article «Types of sentences in the English language»), we are transforming such proposals in accordance with the following clauses of the rule:
— General — clause inserted unions if, whether. The order of the words right.
He asks us, «Do you believe me?» — He asks whether we believe him.
He asks us: «Do you believe me?» — He asked whether we believe him.
— Special issues — clause inserted Union corresponding question word. Word order becomes straightforward.
She asks, «When will the bank open tomorrow?» — She asks when the bank will open tomorrow.
She asked: «What time tomorrow will open a bank?» — She asked what time the bank opens tomorrow.
Reported speech in English, also requires the absence of quotes, changes demonstrative pronouns, adverbs of time and place:
|this — that||yesterday — the day before yesterday|
|these — those||tomorrow — the next day|
|here — there||the day before yesterday — two days before|
|now — then||the day after tomorrow — in two days time|
|today — that day||ago — before|
|this week — that week||next week — the week after|
Enter offer indirect speech in English can be through a variety of verbs, which will be necessary for you the meaning.