Relative pronouns (relative pronouns) are one of several groups of pronouns in English. These pronouns are required to communicate with the main clauses in complex sentences. Thus, they are allied with words. It is allied with words, but not the Union. After the relative pronoun in the English language is not only linked clauses, but they themselves are members of these proposals. And the unions, as we know, the sentence can not be.
What words are relative pronouns in the English language? Subordinate additional proposals, as well as subordinate subjects and predicates associate with the following pronouns: who (who), whose (whose), whom (who), what (that which), which (who).
This is not what I expected. — This is not what I expected.
Who has chosen her is unknown. — Who chose it, it is unknown.
For communication attributive clauses choose who (which), whose (which), which and that (which is).
The girl who lives next door is called Nastya. — The girl who lives next door, called Anastasia.
The shoes that I bought last week are very expensive. — Shoes that I bought last week, is very expensive.
How do we use relative pronouns in the English language?
We use the relative pronoun who, instead of personal pronouns when talking about people (animate the faces).
The boy who won the first prize is only fifteen years old. — The boy who won the first prize, only 15 years old.
The man who built our house lives in Moscow. — The man who built our home, lives in Moscow.
When we talk about things (inanimate objects) or on the animals who use the relative pronoun which.
The movie which you advised me to watch is very boring. — The film, which you advised me to see a very boring.
The dog which you gave me ran away. — The dog that you gave me, ran away.
In both presented cases, instead of the relative pronouns who and which can use the pronoun that. Therefore, if you can not choose the right pronoun in a certain situation, and will take that right. Errors can be avoided.
Have you met the man that sent you flowers? — You met the man who sent you flowers?
This is a diamond ring that I got for my birthday. — This diamond ring that I got for my birthday.
Another relative pronoun in the English language, we replace the possessive pronouns (adjectives). Using whose words instead of these in relation to people, animals and objects, we express something belonging to someone else.
What is the name of the writer whose most famous novel is ‘War and Peace’? — What is the name of the writer, the most famous of which is the novel «War and Peace»?
Tina is the girl whose father works in a bank. — Tina — the girl whose father works in a bank.
One point: the relative pronoun which can be used in relation to the whole sentence. For example:
He helped me to carry my bags, which was very kind of him. — He helped me bring the bag, and it was very kind of him.
Incidentally, after the nouns which are defined by superlatives, ordinal number words or all, any, only, only use the relative pronoun that (but not which or whom):
This is the second correct answer that I got. — This is the second right answer that I got.
If the relative pronoun in the English language is the subject of the subordinate clause, it can not be omitted. How to determine the relative pronoun in this sentence is the subject? Look at clause. If between the relative pronoun and the verb offers no noun or another pronoun, it is the relative pronoun is subject.
I know a boy who is from India. — I know a boy from India.
I believe there are people who can help in difficult situations. — I believe that there are people who can help in difficult situations.
If the function of the relative pronoun in the subordinate clause — addition, we can safely omit the pronoun in the sentence itself. Meaning of the sentence will not be harmed. How to determine the relative pronoun in this sentence is in addition? If between the relative pronoun and the verb there is a noun or another pronoun, it will be subject to, and our relative pronoun — addition.
The nicest city (that) I ever visited is Madrid. — Madrid — the most beautiful city in which I have ever been.
Sorry, I forgot to bring you the book (that) you asked. — Sorry, I forgot to bring your book you requested.
We usually omit prepositions before the relative pronoun in English.
The drawer I keep my documents in was unlocked. — A drawer in which I keep my documents, was opened.
Relative pronouns in English — it’s just one group of pronouns. On the other groups you can read articles devoted to this part of the speech.
This topic is closely related to the other as described in the articles that need to pay attention:
- «Demonstrative pronouns in the English language»
- «Interrogative pronouns in the English language»
After reading them, we recommend to pass the following test: «Test # 2 on the use of pronouns in the English language.»