Let’s look at any written text. In addition to the letters, of which we term the words, phrases and sentences in the text are still present all kinds of signs, which we call the punctuation marks in the English language (punctuation marks in English). It’s certain elements of writing, which help separate the meaningful text segments, sentences, phrases, words, and also indicate the grammatical and logical relations between them. Punctuation in every language, along with the rules of their use, they form its punctuation system.
Why do we need punctuation? What is different punctuation in English from Russian? When we say we are trying to convey to the person or audience their ideas, ideas, emotions, feelings, etc. And help us in this pause, which we set as required; gestures, intonation. Thus, we make it our «sound». And the other party becomes understand the meaning of our utterances.
Unfortunately, in the writing of these aids we can not use. So we come to the aid and punctuation in the English language, which contributes to a clearer and clearer presentation of thoughts. Punctuation in Russian and English languages are the same, but the rules of their use more widely. Let’s find out how these are referred to as punctuation in the English language, and what are the features of their use.
Terms of punctuation in the English language: punctuation marks in English
That common punctuation in the English language that have the following names:
- . — Full stop / period (dot)
- ? — Note of interrogation / question mark (question mark)
- ! — Note of exclamation / exclamation mark (exclamation mark)
- , — Comma (comma)
- ; — Semicolon (semicolon)
- : — Colon (colon)
- — — Hyphen (hyphen)
- — — Dash (hyphen)
- … — Dots (ellipsis)
- ‘- Apostrophe (apostrophe)
- , () — Brackets / parenthesis (brackets square, round)
- «» — Inverted commas / quotation marks
I would like to briefly mention about the features of a punctuation mark in the English language. The emphasis is on contrast to the rules of the Russian language.
Point in the English language is used not only at the end, but sometimes after abbreviations (Mrs. White, Dr. House), as well as various cuts (Jan. = January, Co. = Company).
Question mark in the English language is so named because it is located at the end of interrogative sentences. Concluding elliptical (short) proposal, he sends surprise or bewilderment. However, it is not necessary to put the punctuation mark after the question, expressed in indirect speech further proposal (She answered where she had spent the rest of the day).
A colleague of the previous punctuation — the exclamation mark in the English language — indicates that a word, phrase or sentence expressed any emotion: joy, delight, surprise, sympathy, outrage, anger, etc. (I can not do it! Oops! What a beautiful day!). However, it is not necessary to put an exclamation mark after the call at the beginning of the letter, as is customary in Russian. In this case, use a comma.
A comma in the English language — one of the most difficult punctuation marks, as the rules for its use sometimes differ significantly from the Russian language. These nuances are many, why dwell on them makes no sense. Ideally, the comma should be read as a single punctuation mark in the English language. The comma is usually placed in the following cases: when the items are listed; when there are treatment applications, the introductory words; when we are dealing with a co proposals, part of which are connected to Union and; when we are involved in and the absolute momentum at the beginning of sentences; and introductory infinitive constructions. You will also need a comma when writing the date (from year to separate the month and day), the allocation of interjections, before the signature of a letter, listing titles and titles.
The semicolon in the English language has to share part of the compound sentence in the absence of unions (I spoke to Kate on Friday; she is not going to come tomorrow). If you have a lot to offer simple commas, refer to the semicolon to separate every part of the meaning.
If we are talking about such punctuation in the English language as a colon in the English language, the right to present two proposals, the second complements or explains the first (Your work is unsatisfactory: your knowledge of grammar leave much to be desired), or a a list of what was generalized in the first (You need the following: tomatoes, cabbage, pepper, some salt and sugar.). Of course, do not forget about the colon with the introduction of citations in English, direct speech.
A dash in the English language, as well as commas and parentheses, helps to provide additional information (The flat — the one you bought a year ago — was set on fire last night). With it, we separate lists and lists of generalizing words (She chose some new books for her future study — grammar one, book of activities, audiobook …), creating a long pause or incomplete statements. «Little brother» of the mark — hyphen in the English language — connects two or more words to form compound (merry-go-round, forty-five). Thanks hyphen can we tolerate the word from one line to another.
Ellipsis in English shows us that the offer is not completed within the meaning of. It also serves as an expression of the speaker’s emotion or hesitation. In brackets we put additional information, explanations and introductory offers. Appointment quotes all know — marking the beginning and end of direct speech, quotes, highlighting titles. Just remember that the English language does not put quotation marks at the bottom and the top. And finally, the apostrophe in English, which indicates the passage of one or more letters in a word. With it we create the possessive nouns, verbs abbreviated form.
Of course, this incomplete information on punctuation in the English language. There is still a lot of cases, the use of certain punctuation marks, as well as exceptions to these rules. More information about this area of knowledge you could «Manuals for punctuation in the English language», authored by GV Chesnokov. Find the material you will be able to share durov.com.