In the English language to refer to the term psevdoevfemii there doublespeak, that is duplicitous, deceitful speech. This linguistic phenomenon involves deception, that is a bad issue for good, for the positive and the negative, or at least acceptable. Sometimes words are not simply replaced with neutral-sounding, but opposite in meaning. The main objective of evfemii as a basic principle of political correctness is not to offend the interlocutor. In turn, psevdoevfemiya used in order to prevent the other person to understand what the question really is. Communication in the normal sense of the word does not occur — only created the visibility of information exchange. Psevdoevfemiya — a way to manipulate people, their evaluation and perception of certain phenomena. And I must say, this method is very effective.
One of the most important differences from the usual euphemisms psevdoevfemizmov is the scope of their use. As a rule, the latter are found in the political, military, advertising and corporate sector. The use of certain expressions that distort the true nature of the phenomena causing erroneous association of the interlocutor. Thus, the main goal is realized psevdoevfemii — to distract the public from the really important issues and negative aspects of real life. One acumen is unlikely to be enough to guess the true values of the proposals such as: The airplane had an uncontrolled touch with the ground (happened uncontrolled contact with the ground plane) or An energetic disassembly took place (There was energy dismantling). The first thing to be understood as a message about a plane crash, while the second is an explosion at the nuclear power plant. In this article we will try to give examples of classification psevdoevfemii and possibly analyzing them, you begin to notice such cases in their daily lives. So, the following groups:
Psevdoevfemizmy that veil the military aggressive actions
A large number of words of this group appeared in American English in the 60s during the Vietnam War, and then it was actively used by other governments. Some of these words does not cause us surprise. For example, sonflict (conflict) instead of war (war) or aggression (aggression). In this same sense consume involvement (involvement, participation). The cynicism of such substitutions strikes. One can think of by-products (by-products) — one of the ways to avoid the phrase «killed during the war.» Fraud of this kind has no boundaries. Instead of words, causing a negative reaction, use their «positive» opposites: democracy (democracy) instead of dictatorship (dictatorship); rescue mission mission (action Salvation), brotherly help (friendly help) instead of invasion (invasion); air support (literally: Air support) instead of air attack (Air attack).
Psevdoevfemizmy, which are designed to hide the negative phenomena in the economic sphere
This could include a phrase like fourth quarter equity retreat (reduction of the share capital). By this should not be understood that the other, known as the multi-billion dollar market crash on Wall Street in the fourth quarter of 1987.
Eventually psevdoevfemizmy begin to lose the function of veiling, in other words, begin to cause an equally negative reaction, like the expression that they used to be replaced. Then there are new options to describe the same phenomenon. It will be interesting to trace the chain of changes that have endured the phrase economic crisis, that is the economic crisis. During the twentieth century, one after another, were terms such as slump (fall), depression (depression), and eventually, recession (drop). Yet modern versions boast far greater sophistication: economic adjustment (a period of stabilization of the economy), period of negative economic growth (the period of negative growth). By a similar technique resorted employers when going to lay off employees: career alternative enhancement program (expansion program of career alternatives) means ordinary layoff (dismissal). The closure of a plant that threatens unemployment many people, some well-known companies, called the planned stabilization of production volumes or volume-related production schedule adjustment in the original language.
Psevdoevfemizmy related to the scope of crime
This aspect really produces a reaction of society. Therefore it introduced a series of words that arouse less negative connotations. It can be called in the first place: correctional office (correctional facilities) instead of prison (prison). This innovation gave rise to others: correctional officers instead of prison guards. Prisoners themselves are now called slients of correctional system (customers correctional system).
Psevdoevfemizmy medical sphere
Maybe you will agree that euphemisms in the medical field is still needed. After all, they help tell the disappointing conduct tactful, taking note of the feelings and the state of destination. Here we can include an ice pass away (move) instead of die (die). It is used not only in medicine, but also in everyday life, expressing sympathy and respect for human misery. On the other hand, can be found the phrase, quirkiness that hides errors and irresponsibility of doctors. For example, there is an expression of a negative patient care outcome or negative outcome of patient care. For the average person, it does not carry any information and only misleading. There may be more likely to talk about the mockery than of tact. And it is unlikely many US citizens have guessed what was going on when they were informed that President Reagan was not able to make decisions (in a non-decision-making form). In reality, meaning the operation under anesthesia.
Psevdoevfemizmy advertising industry
In a previous article, entitled «The English political correctness», we gave an example of the use of a home plaque removal instrument (a tool for removing plaque in the home) instead of a conventional toothbrush (toothbrush). This phenomenon is typical for the advertising sector. The main purpose of these psevdoevfemizmov — overstate the importance of this or the other thing, to convince the consumer that she is indispensable. In this example, you do not offer the usual brush and a tool! Probably, it is designed by some very special principle, and certainly this is not present at your neighbor. Well, it is justified to pay for it more. With the same considerations used nutritional avoidance therapy instead of the usual diet (diet).
Psedoevfemizmy last group euphemisms remind that raise the prestige of certain professions. The last is not limited to the examples that we have given in the previous article. You can also recall such masterpieces as: automotive internists (therapists road) instead of car mechanics (mechanics), members of the vertical transportation corps (the members of the body vertical transporter) instead of elevator operators (lifter). This phenomenon is also called inflated language or pompous language. The main objective of these techniques — to transform the most simple and ordinary things in important and complex, give the appearance of something, where, in fact, nothing.
In conclusion, I would like to dispel a popular myth about the origin of the term doublespeak. Many believe that it was first used by George Orwell in his famous dystopian «1984». But this is not true. The word does not appear in the book, but no doubt, Orwellian doublethink (doublethink) and newspeak (Newspeak) contributed to its emergence. These concepts writer considered characteristic of a totalitarian society. The first is a special type of thinking, when a person adheres to conflicting beliefs and considers it normal. Under the second official language should be understood fictional (or not entirely fictional?) Orwell countries of Oceania. Although its principle is different in some respects from the principle psevdoevfemii, their goals are the same — the destruction of thoughts through the destruction of language.
As you can see, psevdoevfemiya a very dangerous phenomenon, and one must be very careful in order not to fall into its network. We hope our article to help you learn to distinguish the true examples of political correctness from hidden manipulation of human consciousness.