In Grammar By Alexandra

Present Perfect Tense — present perfect tense in English

Time Present Perfect — the first complex topic that scares all English language learners. All times are studied first (Present Simple, Past Simple and the Future Simple) are more or less clear to our man, as they have a match in the Russian language. But Present Perfect Tense confuse us. One name is worth — present perfect — the first word automatically classifies the action so far, and the second — to the past: Well, how can this be ?! In fact, it is in this duality lies the true meaning of time Present Perfect: it is transmitted by the action done in the past, but is directly related to the present. A simple example: the action is done in the past and the present can be seen the result:


I have broken my arm. — I broke my arm. (It does not matter where the speaker has broken a hand, it is important that now it is cast.)

This is the basic and all-determining function Present Perfect Tense, and about her and the other features we’ll talk after we study the formation of verb forms in this time.

As forms Present Perfect Tense

Thus, affirmative Present Perfect is formed using the auxiliary verb to have (for the third person singular (he, she, it) — has) and the third form of the verb meaning:

I have done the work. — I’ve done the work.

We have done the work. — We have completed the work.

You have done the work. — You have done the work.

He (she, it) has done the work. — He (she, it) has performed work.

They have done the work. — They have done the work.

To form the interrogative form, the transfer of the auxiliary verb to have forward and put it in front of the subject:

Have you done the work yet? — You’ve already done the work?

Has she done the work yet? — She has already completed work?

In the negative form to add the auxiliary verb to have a particle not:

I have not done the work yet. — I have not done the work.

He has not done the work yet. — He has not done the work.

In abbreviated form the auxiliary verb to have looks like ‘ve, has — like’ s:

I’ve done the work.

He’s done the work.

Reduced negative form have not, has not:

I have not done the work.

Has not he done the work?

Use of Present Perfect Tense: examples of proposals

Now look occurrences Present Perfect Tense with examples of proposals:

  1. Present Perfect Tense conveys action, fully completed in the past, but has connection with this result through this action. In this case, it is important to the action itself, not the circumstances in which it is committed:

    We’ve bought a new car, so it’s time to sell the old one. — We bought a new car, so it’s time to sell the old one. (The car is already purchased, forcing the sale of the old thinking, the car we have, we are its masters, that have bought — part of the time).

    Even easier to understand the function of these examples:

    Has the secretary come? = Is the secretary in the office now? — A secretary came? = The receptionist at the office?

    Have you washed the dishes? = Are the dishes clean? — You washed dishes? Crockery = net?

    Have you met him? = Do you know him? — Have you met him? = Do you know him?

    From the examples it is evident that the action expressed in the Present Perfect, happened in the past, but is the result in real time.

    For the Present Perfect is not important circumstances in which the action is done, so it is often used to introduce a new subject, summed up the situation and indicate the action time is not known:

    — Have you managed to reach Tom? — You managed to get through to Tom? (hereinafter will answer and a description of how it happened, in the Past Simple)

    — Yes, I have, eventually. I called him yesterday without much hope, but he answered almost immediately. — Yes, finally I got through. I called him yesterday without much hope, but he answered almost immediately.

    Thank you so much for what you’ve done! — Thank you very much for what you have done.

    — Oh, welcome. I’ve tried. — Please. I tried to.

    You have not changed. — You have not changed.

    I’ve never thought about it. — I never thought about it.

    What have you done? — What have you done?

    If the sentence given or assumed time of action, we do not use the Present Perfect, and choose the Past Simple. (Let me remind you that this time is used to describe actions that have occurred in the past and there and ended known speaker of the facts of the past as well as the actions described in chronological order.) But there is one caveat: if the period of time in question has not yet been completed, it is necessary the use of Present Perfect Tense:

    Your speech has been awfully boring tonight. — Your speech tonight was terribly boring. (Now in the evening of that day)

    We’ve visited so many fascinating places this year. — This year we visited many beautiful places. (the year is not over yet)

    I’ve met him a few times this autumn. — I’ve seen him several times in the fall. (currently still the autumn)

    If the specified time period has ended, do not hesitate to use the Past Simple:

    I called them in the morning. — I called him in the morning. (now lunch)

    We went to Poland on a business trip this spring. — This spring, we went on a business trip to Poland. (now the summer)

    It is logical that the question of the time of action (ie, the word when) also can not use the Present Perfect, since we are talking about a specific action in the past, completed, and belong exclusively to the elapsed time:

    When did you come? — When did you come?

    When was the last time you ate apples? — When did you last eat apples?

    Often times Present Perfect Tense is used to show repeated action:

    I’ve watched this movie twice already! — I watched this movie twice.

    I’ve visited Italy four times. — I was in Italy four times.

    Again, using the Present Perfect, we mentioned that the action was repeated, but did not describe the specific situation. If we want to do it at our disposal will be Past Simple.

    By the way, all of us from the very first lessons have got a famous phrase as equivalent to have, possess. Now you know what a verb get (receive) Time Present Perfect. Do you think that is why we say that we have something to eat, using the Present Perfect? Obviously, to have something, you must first get it: here’s a prime example of this connection with the past by the result!

    As in any other time, there are word markers Present Perfect. In this case, adverbs, which do not indicate specific time and frequency of actions: for (during), since (since), ever (ever), never (never), just (just), already (already) , yet (has already), before (before), often (often), seldom (rarely), recently (recently), lately (recently), etc. More use of these dialects with the Present Perfect is described in the article «Speech to the Present Perfect». I recommend to read it to everyone who is going to seriously deal with this difficult time.

  2. Present Perfect Tense is used to transmit an action that started in the past and continues to the present time. You may say that this is the main function other grammatical time Present Perfect Continuous, and rightly so. But there are three cases when the Present Perfect to replace it:
      • If the verb is expressed by the verb meaning state. As you know, the verbs state can not be used in times of group Continuous, so they come to the rescue group time Simple:

        We’ve known each other since school years. — We know each other since high school.

        She has wanted to become an actress all her life. — All her life she dreams of becoming an actress.

        I’ve loved her since we first met. — I love her with our first meeting.

      • if semantic verb pronounced dynamic verb that refers to long-term effect (sleep, wait, live, work). In this case, it can be used as a time Present Perfect, and Present Perfect Continuous, and the meaning of the sentence is not changed.

        I have not slept for three days! — I have not slept for three days!

        I’ve lived in this city since childhood. — I live in this city since childhood.

      • when the verb is in the negative, while denied the action itself:

    I have not heard of him for the last three years. — The last three years I have nothing about it heard.

    I have not played tennis since I broke my arm. — I do not play tennis since breaking his arm.

  3. The present perfect tense is used in subordinate clauses of time after the unions when, before, after, as soon as, till, until, to pass on to future action, which will end before the action of the main clause. Just look at an example:

    I’ll serve you a dessert only after you have eaten the main course. — I’ll give you a dessert only after you eat the main course. (Please complete the action of the subordinate clause, then begin the main action.)

    We’ll leave when we have finished our project. — We leave here, when we finish our project.

    Sometimes such sentences can be used instead of the Present Simple Present Perfect:

    I’ll start learning English after I have graduated. = I’ll start learning English after I graduate. — I’ll start learning English when I finish school.

Despite the fact that the theme of Present Perfect Tense requires more perseverance and attention than some other topic, you should remember that English grammar — not a «Chinese puzzle» and understand it is not difficult. Be careful to read the grammar explanations, look for examples in English texts, analyzes and stores them, and then any topic you will be uneasy.

This topic is closely related to the other as described in the articles that need to pay attention:

  • «Currently, the English»
  • «Time Present Simple»
  • «Time Present Continuous»
  • «Time Present Perfect Continuous»

After reading them, we recommend to pass the following test: «test group times Present».

 

Grammar

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