The English language, as well as Russian, contains special language units with which we form new words. We are interested prefixes (prefixes) and suffixes (suffixes) in English, and which of them are used to create the various parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and numerals. The study of word formation is very useful. After all, knowledge of the values of certain prefixes and suffixes in the English language will enable you to easily determine the meaning of words you do not know. Moreover, you can specify which part of speech a word is unfamiliar to you. And knowing, for example, any noun, you will be able to form from it the other parts of speech.
Prefixes in English
Attachments are added in English, by the way, thus changing its meaning. However, the word is the same part of speech, and that without the prefix. Top box in the English language a lot, here are the most common ones.
- Un -, dis -, in -, non -, il -, im -, ir -: prefix with a negative value or a value of «opposites.»
- Comfortable — un comfrtable (comfortable — uncomfortable)
- Regular — ir regular (right — wrong)
- Polite — im polite (polite — impolite)
- Literate — il literate (literate — illiterate)
- Approve — dis approve (disapprove — disapprove)
- Dispose — in dispose (decline — antagonize)
- Entity — non -entity (being — non-being)
- Re -: to «re», «back».
- Claim — re claim (demand — claim back)
- Incarnation — re incarnation (incarnation — reincarnation)
- Mis -: the value of the «wrong», «wrong.»
- Adventure — mis adventure (event — a misfortune)
- Deed — mis deed (act — a crime)
- Pre — and post -: values »before», «before» and «after.»
- Caution — pre caution (caution — caution)
- War — post -war (military — postwar)
- Ex — and en -: the first prefix meaning «of», «is»; «Former», the second with a value of «do» need to form verbs from nouns and adjectives.
- Service — ex- service (service — retired)
- Communicate — ex communicate (chat — expel)
- Chain — en chain (chain — chaining)
- Dear — en dear (beloved — make love)
- Sub -, over — and under -: first console with a value of «a», the second — «super», «excessive» and the third — «not enough».
- Due — subdue (duty — to subordinate)
- Charge — overcharge (load — overload)
- Estimate — underestimate (assess — underestimated)
For more information on set-top boxes provided in paragraphs one and three, you can read in the article «Use prefixes il-, ir-, im-, in-, un-, dis-, mis-, non-».
Suffixes in English
The suffixes in the English language can not only change the meaning of the word, but also translate it into the category of other parts of speech. Therefore, we consider the most employed suffixes, classifying them according to the parts of speech, that they form.
The suffixes in the English language, creating nouns:
- Group suffixes in English, indicating nationality, profession, an instrument of action, character, belonging to any group of people: — ician, — ant, — ent, — ary, — eer, — ess, — ist, — ive, — or, — er / or, — ee.
- Mental phys ician — psychiatrist
- Participant — a participant
- Student — student
- Revolutionary — revolutionary
- Engineer — Engineer
- Goddess — Goddess
- Fugitive — Fugitive
- Terrorist — Terrorist
- Sailor — Sailor
- Builder — Builder
- Employee — an employee, the employee
- Group suffixes in English, refers to the process, concepts, actions, science and subjects: — acy, — age, — ance / ence, — ancy / ency, — ry, — dom, — hood, — tion, — sion, — ism , — ment, — ness, — ship, — ty, — th, — ing.
- Conspir acy — conspiracy
- Lever age — lever engine
- Intellig ence — the mind
- Recogni tion — acceptance, approval
- Readi ness — readiness
- Pret ence — pretense
- Presenti ment — premonition
- Bore dom — boredom
- Omis sion — skip
- Hero ism — heroism
- Facul ty — Faculty
- Read ing — reading
Here is a list of suffixes in English that form adjectives:
- — Able: wash able — Washable
- — Y: dir ty — dirty
- — Ly: man ly — bold
- — Ful: wonder ful — beautiful
- — Less: price less — priceless
- — Ing: promis ing — a perspective
- — Ic: democrat ic — Democratic
Suffixes forming adjectives still quite a lot. There are also suffixes in English that form the verbs and adverbs. They should be studied in more detail when you touch the threads of word formation.