When we talk about nouns in English, we will call the category (categories of noun), which it has: the number of (number), race (gender), deaths (case). In English, unlike Russian, only two cases: the general (the Common case) and possessive (the Possessive case). In the first nominative nouns there are no endings, but their meaning is general in nature. We talk about the possessive case in English.
What is the possessive case in English?
As a rule, the possessive case in English is used to animate nouns that denote people and animals. Determines this case accessory, possession of something different relationships. If it is a syntactic function word in the possessive case, then it is a function definition. For example:
- a girl’s future — the future of the girl (whose?)
- students’ life — the life of students (whose?)
- a policeman’s uniform — a form of police (what? whose?)
- Mr. Davies’ office — the office of Mr. Daviess
If you notice in these examples, there is a kind of endings of nouns in the possessive case in English. It is through this closure — ‘s (apostrophe s) — and the case is formed. The written terms, we have the following options: ‘s — for nouns in the singular; ‘(A single quote — apostrophe) — nouns in the plural and words ending in — s, — ss, — x. It looks as follows:
- the secretaries’ working hours — working time secretaries (plural)
- lady’s handbag — female handbag (singular)
There is one point: if the proper name ends in — s, an apostrophe can be used, but you can skip:
- St. James’ Park — Park St. James
In complex nouns in the formation of the possessive case in English, we add the ending — s to the last word:
- father-in-law’s flat — apartment-in-law (her father)
It should also pay attention to the pronunciation in the end — s. After the end of the deaf is read as s, after the bell and vowels — like z, and then sizzling — iz.
With the possessive case in English are expressed:
- Joint ownership of something:
- My son and daughter’s room
- measure time and distance:
- a three-kilometer’s drive
- a week’s vacation
- any place (shop, home, workshop, etc.):
- at the grocer’s
- at the buther’s
- at the dentist’s
- the value of «one» in the construction with the preposition of:
- Christina is a friend of my sister’s
If we touch inanimate objects, we see that the value of their supplies is usually expressed by a «of phrase,» that is a combination of a preposition with a noun. For example:
- the cover of the book — the book cover
- the history of the English language — History of the English Language
Topic possessive case in English, I would have reacted to light, but at the same time, it is very relevant, since we are talking about using the knowledge in this area permanently.