In Science By Olga

Man and cardigan. Eponym in English

Dreamed you ever thought about how to leave a trace in history: to build a building that will admire centuries later; write a book, which will be offset against future generations; create a business empire? How about to leave a trace in history, adding his name vocabulary of a language? It’s very simple: you have to come up with something that was not there before you, and call in his honor — and ego is satisfied, and the language develops. And sometimes it is not necessary to invent anything — just unlike anything that kind (not necessarily a good :-)), and your name will go down in history in the vocabulary of many people!


We sometimes do not suspect how many words in the English language (as, indeed, and others) is derived from the names of normal people. In fact, a lot of them. Such words are called eponyms (eponyms). That is someone’s invention, discovery, pronounced qualities of character, and sometimes bad reputation made this man so famous that his name becomes part of the language.

In addition to the linguistic component of eponyms are interesting in that their study can not help you learn a lot of interesting facts from the history, plunge at different times, to study the fate of different people. Some even came from the eponymous mythical heroes, so it is possible the same time and repeat mythology. For a start — a few interesting examples of eponyms in the video. Whatever you say, but is remembered best picture!

We do not see a strict division into categories in the study of eponyms. But perhaps the most unusual group of those words — those that have become part of the language of the English language are written in small letters, and it is often difficult to guess what the word was once just someone’s name.

Eponym The man from whose name comes the word Comment
A cardigan
(Cardigan)
James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan — James Bradnell, 7th Earl of Cardigan (1797-1868), Lieutenant-General of the British Army in the Crimean War. They say the count is often seen in knitted jacket without a collar. It is fastened in front with buttons and shaped to hook under the uniform.
A sandwich
(Sandwich)
John Montague, the 4th Earl of Sandwich — John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792), British diplomat. Although it is believed that the sandwich existed long before the appearance of the graph, but he gained widespread thanks to Montague. An avid player, he did not want to break away from the card to eat, and asked him to bring two pieces of bread with meat filling between them.
Diesel
(diesel / engine)
Rudolf Diesel — Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), German engineer and inventor. In 1897 he created the first functioning diesel internal combustion engine with a fuel pump and high efficiency.
A biro
(ball pen)
Laslo Biro — Laszlo Biro (1899-1985), a Hungarian journalist. Together with his brother-chemist invented the ballpoint pen in 1938.
A maskintosh (mac)
(raincoat)
Charles Mackintosh — Charles Mackintosh (1766-1843), a Scottish chemist. Invented a waterproof fabric, from which in 1830 was sewed the first coat.
A hooligan
(bully)
Patrick Hooligan — Patrick Hooligan (late 19th century), the Irish bouncer. Although the exact origin of the word is not proved, on the basis of references in the literature and musical works of the 19th century, people who violate public order, became known hooligans after the Irish thief and bouncers, who lived in London.
Draconian laws
(draconian laws)
Draco — Dragon (Draco), the first legislator of Athens Republic (VII cent. BC. E.). Code of laws, introduced by him in 621 BC. e., it was extremely severe. The term «draconian laws, measures of punishment» within the meaning of strengthened harsh, cruel laws.
Pilates
(Pilates)
Joseph Pilates — Joseph Pilates (1883-1967), German-American athlete and coach. The inventor of a technique of fitness, which is based on the concept of mind control over the work of muscles
A saxophone
(saxophone)
Adolphe Sax — Adolphe Sax (1814-1894), a Belgian inventor of musical instruments. Replacing metal clarinet tree and making a number of changes, Sachs received worldwide fame thanks to the invention of the saxophone.
To mesmerize
(fascinate, mesmerize)
Franz Mesmer — Franz Mesmer (1734-1815), a German physician and astrologer. He advanced the theory of animal magnetism (fluid), which was later rejected by science. He practiced hypnosis on his patients.
Wellingtons
(rubber boots)
The Duke of Wellington — Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), English soldier and statesman. While Duke and famous victory at Waterloo, and the capital of New Zealand was named in his honor, in many countries, his name is remembered in connection with the boots. Wellington offered to do cavalry boots made of leather with a longer front shafted that better protect vulnerable shin riders from bullets. Later boots were made of rubber.

In addition to the direct objects of verbs and adjectives, among many eponyms, and phenomena. For example, John Dalton, an English physician, examined a defect of vision as color blindness, which he suffered. In honor of him, this phenomenon is called color blind (daltonism). All known terms sadism (sadism) and masochism (masochism) also joined the vocabulary of many languages ​​thanks to the infamous Marquis de Sade and Leopold Sacher-Masoch. And Senator Joseph McCarthy, who in the days of the Cold War, sought out among the American public figures Communists created a fertile ground for the emergence of the term «McCarthyism» (McCarthyism), which refers to the persecution of people for political reasons without sufficient reasons and evidence.

Sometimes, in the language of the case of so-called «unexplained eponyms.» Well, what, pray tell, the relationship between the Italian freedom fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi and currant biscuits? And yet it was his name called Garibaldi biscuits very popular in Britain cookies. The question is rhetorical. Answer: for the same reason why all our favorite cake called «Napoleon».

«Geographic» eponyms in English

Special attention should be given to «geographical» eponym. Simon Bolivar, who fought for the independence of the Spanish colonies in America, immortalized his name in the title of the country Bolivia — and became its first president! However, in the geography of the case of «injustice.» Columbus discovered America, but it is not named in his honor. Columbus himself, only one country in America has got to Columbia. And here at the Amerigo Vespucci had good friends who offered to call the New Earth in honor of the traveler America. And with the highest top of the world there was a similar story. Sir George Everest was neither those who ascended to her first, not even those who first measured her height — just the head of Geodetic Survey of British India. But under pressure from his successor is Everest — the second proud name of Chomolungma.

But sometimes, and vice versa: a noble and honorable man, Thomas Hobson (1544-1631), wrote about the poet John Milton, and whose portrait hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London, left in a very unflattering language expression. Being in charge of a large stable, he took care of the horses and not to drive the same horse, and put all customers on an equal footing, not allowed to choose any horse. He put the horse stables at the door «in the best shape,» and insisted that it took to hire her. After his death in English, an expression denoting a variant of one Hobson’s choice, then there is no choice. As the saying goes, take it or leave it. Here’s a good man to thank.

The implications are clear: it is necessary to take care of his reputation and closely watch what you’re doing, perhaps in the future, your name will be found in any dictionary. It is better to be a new invention than any curse. I wonder which of our contemporaries will give life to new English eponyms?

 

Science

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