What is the sacrament, we understand the article of the same name. Let me remind you that it is non-personal form of the verb, which combines the features of adjectives, verbs and adverbs. In English, we work with two types of participles — present and past tense, Present Participle I and Past Participle II respectively. If you have forgotten something, I recommend to see the already mentioned article once again to recall the methods of formation of these sacraments and their use cases.
This material is devoted to self-involvement in trafficking in the English language. His second name — The (Nominative) Absolute Participial Construction. Sometimes it is called absolute or independent involved in trafficking, and at times difficult circumstances, because it is the function it performs in the sentence. Independent participial not to be confused with a simple involved in trafficking. In this sacrament the back of the action expressed by the participle refers to a person or object, which is indicated by the subject in a sentence. Therefore, those involved meet our participial turnovers. For example:
Having done his homework, he listened to music. — Do homework, he listened to the music. (making — gerund; subject to one thing — it — and did homework and listening to music)
Knowing Japanese well, she managed to negotiate with our foreign customers. — Knowing well in Japanese, she was able to negotiate with our foreign customers. (knowing, subject to one thing — she knows the language and it is negotiated)
While writing down her new novel, she often used a dictionary. — By writing his new novel, she often used the dictionary. (writing — gerund; subject to one thing — she wrote the novel and looks in the dictionary)
Having tested the new equipment, they agreed to sign a contract. — Tested the new equipment, they agreed to sign a contract. (tested — gerund; subject to one thing — they are tested and signed the contract)
And what we call participial independent in the English language? How is it different from those that have been made in the examples? Let’s deal.
What is an independent participial in English?
In contrast to previous revolutions involved, in which one subject, in a separate sacrament turnover in the English language will be two. One — in the original proposal, and the second — in the form of one of the components of involvement in trafficking. As an independent participial consists of a noun in the common case, or the personal pronoun in the nominative case, and the communion of any kind, it is a noun or pronoun, and will serve as a subject. A predicate would be the action expressed by the participle. What do we get? Two separate subject, the two predicates, and hence two separate proposals. This is the feature of self-participial phrase in the English language.
Independent participial always separated by a comma from the rest of the proposal. But its location may be different: most of it is in the beginning of the sentence, but not excluded options and in the end, and sometimes in mid-sentence. Independent participial in English corresponds to Russian or a subordinate, or a proposal. Such trafficking is most common in the technical, legal, economic and artistic literature.
Types of circumstances, which performs the function of an independent participial
I have already mentioned that an independent participial performs a function in a sentence difficult circumstances. As we know, the circumstances are different, and their classification is quite extensive. What circumstance could be the turnover of the various proposals? It can function:
- The circumstances of the time.
The rain having stopped, she went to the shop to buy all necessary stuff for the trip. — After the rain stopped, she went to the store to buy everything you need for the trip.
The article being published, I got my author’s fee. — When the article was published, I got my royalties.
The work finished, we went home. — When the work was finished, we went home.
In this function, an independent participial in English corresponds to a subordinate clause of time. And speaking the proposals would look like: After the rain had stopped, she went to the shop to by all necessary stuff for the trip. The article was published and I got my author ‘fee.
By the way, between a noun and a participle in a separate sacrament back into English may be the defining words. For example:
The question having been settled, he went to bed. — When the issue was resolved, he went to sleep.
The question about his participating in this meeting having been settled, he went to bed. — When the question of his participation in the meeting was settled, he went to sleep.
Some independent participial may be omitted from the verb participle I to be — being. But it is easy to guess the meaning of:
The lesson (being) over, the teacher left the school. — When the class ended, the teacher left the school.
- Circumstances cause. And this revolution will meet the subordinate clause causes in Russian.
Her sister being too nervous, it was difficult to speak to her. — Her sister was very nervous, it was difficult to talk.
My brother having lost his international passport, we could not go abroad. — My brother lost his passport, and we could not go abroad.
Here are the momentum in the form of subordinate clauses: As my sister was too nervous, it was difficult to speak to her. As my brother had lost his international passport, we could not go abroad.
Location to be in a separate sacrament turnover can take an introductory offer there, or a formal subject it. For example:
There being nobody at work, I decided to have a nap. — At work, no one was there, and I decided to take a nap.
It being Monday, the shop opened at half past nine. — Since it was Monday, the store opened in the tenth floor.
- The surrounding circumstances and the circumstances of manner. In this situation, an independent participial always at the end of the sentence.
He looked at me, his eyes sparkling with joy. — He looked at me, his eyes shining with joy.
The wood was placed in the warehouse, the wood shredding being forwarded to the factory. — The wood was placed in the warehouse, and filings sent to the factory.
A full proposal will be such: He looked at me and his eyes were sparkling with joy. The wood was placed in the warehouse and the wood shredding was forwarded to the factory.
The functions of the attendant circumstances can be met and prepositional independent participial in English — The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. He entered the pretext with.
She was listening to me with her mouth (being) pursed. — He listens to me, her lips were pursed.
- Circumstances conditions. In this situation, we usually encounter a participle of verbs to permit — let; to fail — fail, fail.
Weather permitting, we will start planting potatoes. — If the weather permits, we will begin to plant potatoes.
Time permitting, I’ll visit you next month. — If time permits, I will come to you next month.
Independent participial in this function will match the conditions of a subordinate clause in the Russian language: If the weather permits, we will start planting potatoes. If the time permits, I’ll visit you next month.
Translation self-involved revolutions in Russian
In conclusion I would like to say a few words about the translation yourself involved in Russian revolutions. As you have seen, for the most part, they are transferred to subordinate clauses of the type that corresponds to a specific circumstance. It can be time clauses (with the unions — when, after all), the reasons (with the unions — because, as), the conditions (if a union). Examples listed above.
They can be translated and a separate proposal from the Union: A while, and. Consider the example of wood. A separate proposal can be transferred with the union «and», or even without any co-ordinative.
The first day after the holidays was very profitable, over one hundred bottles of mineral water being sold in the afternoon. — The first day after the holiday was very profitable. In the afternoon, we have sold more than a hundred bottles of mineral water.
The present participle (Present Participle) in a separate sacrament back into English, we translate the verb in the present tense, if the predicate expressed by the verb in the present tense, and, accordingly, the verb in the past tense, too, if the predicate in the past tense. Why? Participle I expresses the action to be taken simultaneously with the action of the verb-predicate. But it can mean participle and action coincides with the moment of speech, regardless of how much time is expressed predicate. Then we can see a combination of «the present time (Communion) — elapsed time (verb-predicate).» For example:
The car could not enter the garage, its height exceeding 2 metres. — The car could not stop in the garage, as its height is greater than (greater than) 2 meters.
Past participle (Participle II) is always translated by the verb in the past tense, because by this sacrament we express an action that preceded the action of the verb-predicate.