This group of pronouns in the English language is the biggest. It consists of more than ten pronouns. And each of them has its own peculiarities of usage. Since the material is fairly lengthy, I decided to divide it into two articles. Moreover, on the blog already have articles that talk about some indefinite pronouns in English. One of the articles describes some, any, no, the other — much, many, few, little, a lot of, plenty. In the first article we will talk about these indefinite pronouns: the derivatives of some, any, no; none, all.
Pronouns derived from some, any: someone, somebody, something, somewhere, anyone, anybody, anything, anywhere
As the title of this section listed pronouns are formed by adding the words of one, thing, body to the indefinite pronouns some and any. How to translate these words? Someone / somebody / anyone / anybody — somebody, anybody, anybody; something / anything — anything, anything, anything. The used as nouns, pronouns, these words carry out the sentence subject or function. Here worth to remember one thing: when this indefinite pronoun is subject, predicate verb must be put into the form of the third person singular:
Somebody has stolen my wallet. — Someone stole my purse.
Does anybody know where she is? — Does anyone know where she is?
What are the rules under which we usually use indefinite pronouns in the English language derived from some, any? Pronouns somebody, someone, something we use in affirmative sentences, special questions in the common areas where requested, any proposal; and anybody, anyone, anything — in negative sentences, common areas and conditional sentences.
Somebody has killed him. — Someone killed him.
Someone still loves you. — Someone still loves you.
She knows something about it. — She knows something about it.
Would you like something to eat? — Want something to eat?
Why did not you ask somebody to show you the way to the hospital? — Why did not you ask someone to show you how to get to the hospital?
Does anybody believe him? — He was one believes?
I did not tell anyone about our relations. — I did not tell anyone about our relationship.
If anyone agrees to sign this contract, I will resign. — If someone would agree to sign the contract, I was fired.
Is there anything to drink? — Is there anything to drink?
After these indefinite pronouns like somebody and anybody, we do not use a pretext of. If we want to give the phrase «one of us», say — one of us. If we want to give the phrase «any of us», say — any of us.
Yes, pronouns derived from any, may be set to «everyone, anyone anything» in affirmative sentences and questions. For example:
Anyone can run fast. — Anyone can run fast.
I would do anything for love (but I will not do that). — I would do anything for love (but I will not do it).
There are two pronouns in this group, of which we have not spoken. These are the words somewhere and anywhere, which is translated as «somewhere, somewhere, somewhere, somewhere, somewhere.»
She is somewhere in Sydney. — She’s somewhere in Sydney.
Is there a shop anywhere? — Somewhere there’s a store?
Often after the indefinite pronouns, and some derivatives of any, you may find an adverb, or else the definition expressed adjective. And one more thing: These pronouns without problems can be used in the possessive case.
Tell me something curious. — Tell me something interesting.
Does anybody else find this woman attractive? — Does anyone else thinks that this woman attractive?
The burglar broke into somebody’s house. — The robber entered (breaking into someone’s house).
I’ll never be anybody’s hero. — I’ll never be someone’s hero.
Pronouns derived from no: nobody, no one, nothing, nowhere
How and indefinite pronouns in the previous section, these negative pronouns are formed by combining the words no body, one, thing, where. And translates them accordingly: no one, nothing, nowhere. As pronouns, nouns, these words are used in sentences with the verb only in the affirmative, since according to the rules in the English language is unacceptable double negative. But this axiom questioned. More about the double negative and its admissibility, you can read in this article — double-negation.
Nobody knows him. — No it does not.
No one lives forever. — Nobody lives forever.
I have nothing to hide from you. — I have nothing to hide from you.
This conversation is getting us nowhere. — This conversation nowhere (nowhere) we will not.
Please note that these pronouns function to be required in the form of the verb third person singular. And after these negative pronouns we do not put of. If you want to say «none of us» choose — none of us. And if it is only about two persons, a suitable option — neither of us.
None of us is perfect. — Nobody is perfect.
Neither of them knows the truth. — They both do not know the truth.
By the way, none too pronoun functions as a noun-pronoun. It may replace the countable and uncountable nouns in English sentence.
You have money and I have none. — Do you have money, and I have not.
She bought a lot of toys and he bought none. — She bought a lot of toys, but it is not one.
The pronoun all
But it is an indefinite pronoun in the English language can be a pronoun-noun and pronoun-adjective. And in a bid to its functions are as follows: subject, object, definition.
When we work with the pronoun-adjective all, we use it to mean «all» (countable nouns, plural) and the meaning of «all, all, all» (uncountable nouns). If the pronoun has the definite article, possessive or demonstrative, their placement — after all.
I remember all the things she said. — I remember everything she said.
It can not rain all the time. — It can not rain all the time.
If we work with a countable noun in the singular, and we want to pass the value «all» instead of the pronoun we all usually use a combination of the whole. By the way, if the words morning, day, night, and other signs of time, we can use all, and whole.
The whole city is going crazy. — The whole town is going crazy.
The birds were singing all the morning (the whole morning). — Birds singing all morning.
When we work with a noun-pronoun all, we use it to mean «all, all»:
They all deserve to die. — They all deserve to die.
I think we are all doomed. — I think we’re all doomed.
You have all read this book. — All of you have read this book.
We must all take responsibility. — We all have to take responsibility.
They have all been knighted. — All of them were knighted.
Who should do it? — We all should. — Who should do it? — All of us.
She’ll give invitations to them all. — She will distribute them to all invitations.
Look carefully at the examples presented above, and note the location of the pronouns are all in different situations, namely:
- before the verb-predicate;
- after the verb to be;
- After the auxiliary or modal verb;
- if two auxiliaries, after the first one;
- before the auxiliary or modal verb in short answers;
- after the pronouns in the objective case.
When the indefinite pronoun is subject to all offers and is set to «all», the verb, the verb is in the plural:
All are equal. — Everyone is equal.
When the indefinite pronoun is subject to all offers and is set to «all», the verb, the verb is singular:
All is lost. — All is lost.
On the other indefinite pronouns in English read the second article (Indefinite pronouns in English — part 2).