In Science By Daria

Graphic acronyms and other abbreviations in English

In the letter, we are often faced with different kinds of cuts in the Russian language, we do not think about them as they are well understood: and so on, et al., Sat, Sun, ie., Without a / n and m / n, and others. Such reductions we find in books, newspapers, advertisements. Also today, the popular chat via the Internet, social networks, ICQ, Skype. Those who constantly speaks in this way, «own» special «language». Of course, the language of the Internet has a lot of abbreviations and acronyms.


As you know, the English language tends to be laconic, respectively, in it too much (in fact, much more than in Russian) of the various cuts. About them and referred to in the article.

In English, there are four basic types of cuts:

  1. Graphical shortening (graphical reduction).
  2. Lexical (lexical).
  3. Blending (Mergers).
  4. Digispeak (digital language).

Graphic abbreviation can be found:

  • In the letters:
    • St — Street — Street
    • Rd — Road — Road
    • c / o — care of — to take care of
    • Mr — Mister — an appeal to the man
    • Mrs — Missis — appeal to a married woman
    • Ms — Miss — appeal to a girl
    • Dr. — Doctor — Doctor
    • PS — Afterword
    • PPS — posleposleslovie
    • IMHO — In My Humble Opinion — in my humble opinion (often found on the Internet))
    • w / o — without — without
    • w / — with — with
    • DC — District of Columbia — DC
    • WA — Washington — Washington
  • In scientific books, dictionaries:
    • n. — cuschestvitelnoe
    • v. — verb
    • adj. — adjective
    • adv. — adverb
    • prep. — excuse
    • eg — for example,
    • p. — Page
    • pp. — Page
    • pto — please turn over — perelistnite
    • par — par.
    • etc — and so on
  • Advertisements (ads), announcements (messages, notifications):
    • arr. — arrive — Arrival
    • dep. — depart — departure
    • Jan., Feb., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec., etc — months
    • Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat., Sun. — days of the week
    • in. — inch
    • sec. — seconds
    • gm. — gram
    • cm. — centimeter
    • qt — qt
    • cc — cc
    • mph — miles per hour — miles per hour
    • kph — kilometres per hour — km / h
    • ft. — foot — foot (30 cm to 48 mm)
    • lb — libra — Libra (400 gr)
    • oz — ounce — an ounce (28 grams)
    • d — denarius — denarius (a Roman silver coin)
    • Tel. — Telephone — telephone
    • No., no. — Number — number
    • WYSIWYG — what you see is what you get — what you see is what you get
    • POTUS — president of the USA — the US president
    • VPOTUS — vice-president of the USA — US Vice President
    • FLOTUS — first lady of the USA — the first lady of the United States
  • Matrimonial advertisements (matrimonial ads):
    • attract. — attractive — attractive
    • corresp. — correspondent — the leading correspondence
    • div. — divorced — diluted (a)
    • f’ship — friendship — friendship
    • gd-lkng — good-looking — attractive
    • gent — gentleman — a man
    • gfrnd — girlfriend — girlfriend
    • GP — general practitioner — a medical practitioner
    • hum — humour — c humorous
    • marr. — marriage — family
    • med — medium — medium height
    • mting — meeting — meeting
    • N / D — no-drinker — teetotal
    • N / S — no-smoker — non-smoker
    • OHAC — own house and car — his own house and car
    • pls — please — please
    • poss. — possible — possible
    • R — are — currently the plural verb to be
    • sgle — single — one
    • sks — seaks — looking for
    • U — you — you
    • VGSOH — very good sense of humour — a very good sense of humor
    • LTR — long-term relationship — long-term relationship
    • WLTM — would like to meet — like (a) to meet
    • Wwphoto — write with photo — answer with photos
    • yr — years

Other abbreviations Angliysky language:

  • a VIP — a very important person — a very important person
  • asap — as soon as possible — as soon as possible
  • a SF story — a science fiction story — a sci-fi story
  • IBM — international business machine — manufacturer of hardware and software, as well as its powerful brands
  • LG — lucky gold star — lucky gold star
  • AC — alternating current — AC
  • DC — direct current — direct current
  • aka — also known as — notorious
  • UNO — United Nation Organization — UN
  • NATO — North Atlantic Treaty Organization — NATO
  • UNESCO — United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations — UNESCO
  • R. and D. — research and development programme — program of research and development
  • V-day — Victory day — Victory Day
  • H-bomb — the hydrogen bomb
  • X-mas — Christmas
  • V-neck — V-neck
  • V-shaped — in the form V
  • VJ Day — the day of victory over Japan
  • HM The Queen — Her Majesty The Queen — Her Majesty the Queen
  • An NC-17 — no children under 17 — not recommended viewing for children under 17 years
  • G — general audience — there are no restrictions for viewing
  • R — restricted — up to 17 years of watching adults

In English, many Latin abbreviations:

  • am — ante meridiem — in the morning
  • pm — post meridiem — in the afternoon
  • ie — id est — that is
  • AD — Anno Domini — of our era
  • BC — before Christ — BC
  • eg — exempli gratia — for example

Examples of truncation in the English language:

  • sis — sister — sister
  • doc — doctor — Doctor
  • telly — television — TV
  • phone — telephone — telephone
  • plane — airplane — the plane
  • vator — elevator — Lift
  • zine — magazine — magazine
  • specs — spectacles — sunglasses
  • fridge — refrigeration — refrigerator
  • flu — influenza — the flu
  • comfy — comfortable — comfortable
  • imposs — impossible — impossible
  • mizzy — miserable — miserable

The truncation of the names:

  • Alf — Alfred
  • Ed — Edward
  • Sam — Samuel
  • Bess — Elizabeth

For English, this method is characterized by the formation of new words, as a merger — the one word of two truncated. This method is less popular, but you can bring some interesting examples:

  • Amerasian — American + Asian — man-American of Asian descent
  • botel — boat + hotel — hotel ship
  • docudrama — documentary drama — docudrama
  • earwitness — ear + witness — a witness who heard
  • foodaholic — glutton
  • fruice — fruit + juice — Fruit juice
  • medicare — medical care — medical care, supervision
  • medinews — medical news — medical news
  • mimsy — miserable + flimsy — goner
  • netizen — internet + citizen — man Internet
  • pomato — potato + tomato
  • slimnastics — slim + gymnastics — exercises for weight loss
  • wordrobe — word + wardrobe — vocabulary
  • workaholic — a workaholic

Recently popular DIGISPEAK — Digital language:

  • CYO — see you on-line — see you in the network
  • DIKY — do I know you? — I know you?
  • FOAF — friend of a friend — each other

In this article I will try to highlight based on the method of abbreviations in English, and has led a number of examples. Hopefully, they will help you when reading books and various periodicals, as well as to socialize. Enjoy English!

 

Science

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>