As we know, the verb in the English language has a personal and non-personal form (finite / non-finite forms of the verb). By the impersonal verb forms are the infinitive (infinitive), Communion (participle) and gerunds (gerund). For each of the impersonal forms you can read separately in the corresponding articles. Such forms as gerunds in Russian language does not exist. Therefore, for a person to learn English, study and understanding of the gerund may be some difficulties. But not always and not for everyone. So what is the gerund in English?
Options gerund in English: Examples of proposals
Gerunds in English expresses the name of action and has the appearance of a verb and a noun. Gerund may have different functions in a sentence:
- Gerund in function of the subject:
Travelling is a very adventurous thing. — Travel — this is a very exciting experience.
- The functions of the complement (direct and prepositional):
I do not mind staying. — Never mind, I’ll stay.
I am good at playing football. — I have to play good football.
- Gerund function in the circumstances:
He left without saying a word. — He left without a word.
- The functions of the nominal part of the predicate:
His task was translating an article. — His mission was a translation of the article.
- Gerund with prepositions can function definitions:
I like her way of doing this. — I like the way she does.
Gerund can be defined possessive and demonstrative pronoun or noun in general and possessive (his singing — his singing, my friend’s speaking — we are a friend of mine). Before there can be an excuse gerund (before leaving — before leaving).
As seen from the above examples, the formation of the gerund in English, takes place by adding the ending — ing to the verb infinitive without the particle to. If necessary negation particle not put before the gerund. Gerund in English and has a form of time deposit.
What are the signs of the verb at the gerund in English? Firstly, he may go after the direct object:
Making mistakes is very unpleasant. — Making mistakes is very unpleasant.
Gerund can be defined dialect:
I do not like walking slowly. — I do not like to walk slowly.
In gerund have several forms which are presented below:
- Indefinite Active (undefined in the active voice) — reading
- Indefinite Passive (undefined in the passive voice) — being read
- Perfect Active (perfect in the active voice) — having read
- Perfect Passive (perfect in the passive voice) — having been read
Terms gerund translation in the English language
Gerunds in English can be translated:
- A noun that conveys the process (reading — reading, walking — walking, painting — painting).
- Verbs, usually infinitives or occasionally gerund (Much depends on his leaving the hotel. — A lot depends on whether he will leave the hotel; without saying a word — not a word).
- Sophisticated forms of gerund almost always translate subordinate clauses.
Subject gerund in English is complicated by the fact that some verbs are used only to him, and some other impersonal forms of the verb. Moreover, there are some expressions and verbs that allow, for example, and use the gerund and an infinitive. These groups of verbs (and certain expressions) need to know to remember not to make grammar mistakes in the construction of sentences.