In Science By Inna

Formation of English

The English language, like any other — it is a living organism. Once he was born, and ever since never for a moment stopped in its development. Human character is influenced by various factors. During the formation of the English language is also undergoing various changes under the influence of a huge number of historical events. British Isles for a long period of time has not been subjected to foreign conquest. Modern English is a mixture of languages ​​spoken by the conquerors.

The main stages the formation of the English language

It is known that about 700 g to n. e. British islands inhabited by Celtic tribes. They spoke in tongues, belonging to the group of Indo-European languages. And who knows what would have become of the English language, and there he would do if it were not for the glory of the British Isles as a land teeming with gold and silver. This conquest was launched beginning of the process of formation of the English language.

The process of formation is divided into three periods:

  • Old English (450-1066 years)
  • Middle English (1066-1500 biennium)
  • New England (1500 g)

Old English period

The first on the island come for the Romans. After two failed attempts at conquest in 55 — 54 BC, they returned to the island after nearly a century. With them on the islands begins construction of roads, luxury villas, military fortifications, chasing the first gold coins. The most important innovation in this time can be regarded as the emergence of writing, Latin became the language of educated urban residents. But the fate of all empires — this fall. In 409 the last Roman legions leave the island. But the British do not have to be bored. Since the beginning of the 5th century their new uninvited guests — the Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons and Jutes). The illiterate but well-armed men slept and saw the wealth of Britain, created during the reign of the Roman Empire. One came to the UK, they decided to settle in these lands. Intense formation of the English language begins With their advent. Some British Celts, unable to withstand the neighborhood with the Germanic tribes, went to Scotland, some to the mountains in the west of the territory of modern Wales. As new owners, the Anglo-Saxons competently approached the issue of board country. They created the Council of the King to address difficult issues, divided into districts in England and introduced three-field system of agriculture. Language invaders almost completely supplanted the Celtic and Latin, leaving only their memory the names of cities, rivers, and concepts related to the types of food, clothing, plants. In 790 — 1042 years. Britain is subject to relatively peaceful Viking raids. Tired of sea travel and finding a common language with distant «relatives» (in both languages ​​common roots), they settled in the north and east of the island. In this first phase of the English language It can be considered as completed. As a result of mixing the formed language has lost the majority of endings and has features analytical language, where the main role was playing word order.

Middle English period

1066 in British history — the beginning of the year exploring the Old French language. He brought with him a new aggressive-minded people — the Normans, and not as a gift. French became the official language, it consists of all the official documents of instruction in schools. But nothing is imposed by force will not succeed. English is not only «survived», but won, gradually displacing the French, although, of course, has absorbed a huge amount of words Norman-French. It must be said that the lack of a single standard language in this period created considerable difficulties when reading documents and other manuscripts (each recorded speech sound, guided by their own idea of ​​literacy). London dialect as the most recognizable, was adopted as a basis. By the end of the 14th century English became the language of law and teaching in schools.

New England period

Since the 16th century, the inhabitants of the islands are attached to the culture of continental countries through Latin and Greek. This is the period of development of relations with other countries of England, and as a consequence, the language is replenished loans from the fields of industry, commerce and the arts. In the 18th century, linguists attempt to systematize the English language, taking as a basis of Latin grammar.

Nowadays formation of the English language. It is updated and expanded, being one of the richest and most melodious languages ​​in the world.



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