So, who will also be useful to this article? I think everyone! Perhaps you have heard such a thing as formal and informal English, and the point here is not to use slang or the correctness or incorrectness of the use of certain words or grammatical structures. Everything is much more interesting, in English as well as in any other, we must distinguish between formal and informal style, the choice of which will depend on the situation.
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that this type of writing, such as essays, regardless of the type (opinion essay, for and against essay, discursive essay, providing solutions to problems essay), in the English language requires exclusive use of a formal style; when writing various types of reports, official letters should also adopt a more formal style. But, of course, to say that the formal style is required only in writing, it is not correct. Do not forget that in some situations, speaking also requires the use of more formal and formal style, such as negotiating, reading the report, and so on. D.
Let’s look at the main characteristics of this style, and try to find suitable examples to illustrate.
|What not to do||What to do|
|Do not use abbreviations such as it’s; can not; we’ll; did not, and so on. D.||Always try to use the full form: it is; can not; we will; did not.|
|Do not use abbreviations and such as eg, etc., ie||Use their full form: for example, and so on, that i.|
| Avoid using personal pronouns. How can this be avoided?
You put the chemicals in the test tube.
The chemicals are put in the test tube.
|As you can see from the examples, the use of the passive voice makes our offerings more formal style, so feel free to use the Passive Voice.|
| Try to use more neutral language so as not to seem too direct in his address to the reader or listener.
I’m sorry but …
We regret to inform you that …
| We do not recommend the use of phrasal verbs; try to find a synonym that will be most accurately express your thought.
The experiment was carried out.
| It does not apply to absolutely all phrasal verbs, the use of some of them may be, but if you are not sure whether to be used the verb — Find a synonym.
The experiment was conducted.
|Do not use idiomatic expressions, we leave them to the colloquial, spontaneous speech, or as to the letters that we write to friends.|
| Do not use colloquialisms.
Looks like humanities are really great.
| Proposals may be longer, the use of complex grammatical constructions welcome.
Yet, the number of the disciplines embraced under the notion of humanities is far more numerous than that of the natural sciences, which makes humanities a worthy competitor on the labour market.
|Avoid the use of emotive words such as, for example, awesome, huge, and so on. D.||There are many words that are often used in this speech, written or oral, for example, to constitute, to undertake, anew, truly, heyday, as it happens, retrieval and many others.|
|Do not start a sentence with the following unions: and, but, or, so; These alliances should be used within a sentence, but not to start it.||Use words ligament (linking words) such as, for example, however, although, yet, nevertheless, and so on. D.|
Of course, all of these rules, or even more precise observations are nothing like the clear and structured rules of English grammar, but you must stick to them. But this does not mean you have to try to make my speech as possible florid, with a huge number of unfamiliar words and phrases. Not at all, do not overload your suggestions compound words, and even more words, the use of which you are not sure. The letter is perhaps the most complex activity, and can take a long time before we learn how to logically and «beautiful» to express their thoughts on paper, but, fortunately, today there are many resources that can help us, and most importantly, which we can find something new and useful for yourself. Here are just a few of them, I advise you to use when writing essays, letters, reports, and not only:
http://www.ldoceonline.com — Longman Online Dictionary. This dictionary is good because here you can find not only the explanation of the word, but also examples of their use in the proposals and the possible momentum and stable expression with these words. Many words are marked as formal / informal, which could serve as a good tip when choosing words.
http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk — British National Corpus. This resource is simply irreplaceable for those who prefer to «discover» the rules and patterns of use of those or other structures, words and phrases. It is a reliable resource that contains more than 100 million examples of the use of various lexical structures in speech and writing. Enter a word or combination of words into the search box, you get 1 to 30, example sentences using the word, all these examples are taken from a living language. Thus, you can check whether the common language in this or that phrase, or how can behave this or that word in a sentence (using prepositions after the word, the use of grammar with this word, and so on. D.)
http://thesaurus.com — on this site you can get a large number of synonyms for any word. But be careful! Do not forget to check out not only translation of unfamiliar words, but his explanation in English, as well as use in a sentence, as very often, the translation may be inaccurate and inappropriate word to convey your message.
Also, I advise you to use the so-called Collocation Dictionaries, because in order to know the word, is not enough to be able to translate it, you need to know also the context in which it appears most often, that is. E. Combinations that are more natural for this word.
I hope this article will help you not only to understand the concepts of formal and informal English, but also open to you additional resources for learning English.