Today’s article is intended primarily for those who are going to take the IELTS Academic. But students who are preparing for the TOEFL, Cambridge examinations, or simply those who want to learn as much as possible the ability to clearly express their thoughts on paper, of course, too, can discover interesting tips.
To begin with, there are two quality indicators of written text that are highly valued, it is — cohesion and coherence. The Anglo-Russian dictionary gives the following translation of these words:
Cohesion — the unity, coherence, cohesion.
Coherence — logical sequence validity.
What is the difference between the unity of the text and its logicality at first glance may not be quite clear, therefore, to analyze in more detail.
Cohesion — an actual, external coherence of the text. By this we mean the use of expressions such as however (however, but), and (and), because (because), and so on. E., The use of synonyms, or replacement of certain nouns and pronouns ie. D.
Coherence — this is the internal logic of the text, presentation of ideas so that they are as clear to the reader. It is true that cohesion is considered more subjective concept, while coherence — on the contrary. Indeed, what seems to me interconnected to the other person can not be. Nevertheless, this exam is necessary to be cautious. If your goal — to get a good result as possible, try to do without the incomprehensible logic intelligible only to you. 🙂
Interestingly, cohesive text is not necessarily coherent. Consider this example:
I love going to the cinema. The cinema is also in the Puskinska street. This street is always beautiful in spring. It is my favourite season. However, this year was colder than the last one. — I like to go to the cinema. Cinema is also located on Pushkin Street. This street is always beautiful in the spring. This is my favorite time of year. Although this year was colder than the last.
Outwardly, this text is connected: words are used, and also however, used synonyms and pronouns. Nevertheless, it is absolutely no sense. This is an excellent illustration of the fact that cohesion without coherence — it’s like a handsome man with an empty soul. 🙂
But it’s great if intelligent man still looks good, does not it? Similarly, in the case of cohesion and coherence. They are certainly interrelated, because by using synonyms, relevant unions, prepositions, and so on. D. We make the text more understandable to the reader.
Therefore, further in this article, we’ll discuss one of the receptions of foreign organizations in the logical structure of the text — use linking words, ie words that help us to combine ideas into a coherent whole. But remember that it is only the shell of the text. These words will make your text cohesive, but do not forget to make sure that he was still coherent.
So, to make smooth transitions between the different ideas in the text, thus showing that they are directly related to the theme works, you can help unions (conjunctions), prepositions (prepositions) and detailed turnover (adverbials).
A few words about what the three of them are different.
- Conjunction — «glues» two sentences without forming between them, depending.
International tourism is becoming very popular and this certainly has a lot of benefits. — International tourism is becoming very popular, and it certainly has a lot of advantages.
- Preposition, on the contrary, such a relationship forms.
In spite of bringing money in the local economy, international tourism can also cause some irreversible changes. — Regardless of (what?) Infusion of money into the local economy, international tourism may cause some irreversible changes.
- Adverbial. Firstly, it should be noted that the adverbs and adverbials — the concept is not entirely identical. Adverb — it is an adverb, part of speech, which in a certain way characterizes the action (verb) and answers the question «how?», «When?», «Where? «,» where? «,» why? «. In English, they are formed in most cases by adding to the adjective endings — ly (beautifully, slowly). Adverbials — a broad term, because underneath, we understand different syntactic units (phrases, if you will) that perform the function of adverbs, ie. e. describe the action. For example, We woke up at 8 o’clock. In this case, at eight o’clock — it is adverbial, as reported to us when the action occurred.
Moreover, there are different types adverbials. Below are the conjuncts, i.e. adverbials, which connect the supply in the text or part of one sentence with one another.
At first glance, international tourism may seem to be very beneficial for the locals, however, there is a lot of controversy about this issue. — At first glance, it might seem, international tourism is very beneficial to local residents, but there is a lot of controversy over this issue.
We finished with grammatical part and move on to the practice — namely, to the list of specific linking expressions. In this article, they are grouped according to the purpose for which we can use them in the text.
- To express the sequence (sequence).
Firstly (first), secondly (in the second), finally (finally), after that (then), then (then), first (first, first), next (next).
First identify the problem. Then think of the ways to tackle it. — First, identify the problem. Then think about how to deal with it.
It is important: firstly, secondly, finally used for serial arguments (first, second). For a description of the sequence of processes used first, next, after that, then (first, then, then).
- For more information (additional information).
And (and), as well as (like).
I like watching films in original as well as reading books. — I like watching movies in the original, as well as read books.
Similarly (likewise), also (as), in addition (in addition), anyway (in either case), moreover (further), besides (addition), furthermore (furthermore), likewise (also similar).
Watching films in English enriches your vocabulary. Moreover, it is interesting. — Movies in English enrich your vocabulary. In addition, it is interesting.
- For the example (giving examples).
For instance (for example), for example (eg), that is to say (ie), in other words (in other words), that is (ie, abbreviated ie)
International tourism has a lot of advantages. For instance, it creates new workplaces for the locals. — International tourism has many advantages. For example, it creates new jobs for the locals.
- To express the cause and effect (cause, reason, result).
Because (the reason), so (the investigation).
I hate noise, so I live in the countryside. — I hate the noise, so I live in the countryside.
I live in the countryside, because I hate noise. — I live in the countryside, because I hate noise.
Consequently (accordingly), as a result (as a result), thus (so), so (so), therefore (so) — all used to express the investigation.
Cars do a lot of harm to the environment, therefore many people switch to bikes. — Cars are causing a lot of harm to the environment, so many people are switching to bicycles.
Due to (because, thanks), because of (because, owing), owing to (due thanks), on account of (the expense due) — are used to express all causes.
I passed my entering exams easily owing to my high school preparation. — I passed the entrance exam is easy because of my schooling.
- To express the contrast (contrasting).
Alternatively (alternatively, in the alternative), however (however), in contrast (in contrast), on the other hand (the other hand), nevertheless (nevertheless), on the contrary (opposite), yet (again, all same).
The price of petrol is increasing. Nevertheless, there are more and more cars in cities. — The price of gasoline increases. However, more and more vehicles in urban areas.
Though (although, despite the fact), although (at), but (but).
Although much money had been invested in this campaign, it was not successful. — While much money has been invested in this campaign, it was not successful.
In spite of (despite), despite (even though).
Despite being too busy, he managed to go to the conference. — Despite the fact that he was too busy, he was able to come to the conference.
* When in spite of / despite a noun or verb used with the ending — ing.
I advise you to make as many sentences with these words. It helps to remember them in the future to easily use in their essays.
Another important point — with linking expressions important not to «overdo it.» If you begin each new proposal this expression, it will look unnatural and also can distract from the fact. Examiners valued it «seamless cohesion», that is, the text should be «sewn» into one, but so that «seams» no one noticed.
Pay attention to your essay was cohesive as well as coherent and success in training!