For the first time spoke about the political correctness in the early 80s. Political correctness — a kind of code, which is designed to eliminate any kind were signs of discrimination. «Democracy — is not only majority rule, but also respect for the rights of minorities» — namely that truth is the basis of this code.
At the level of language, political correctness is provided in most cases with the help of evfemii (Gr. Ευφήμη — «blagorechie»), ie the replacement of inappropriate or obscene words and expressions in neutral in meaning and emotional coloring descriptive word or phrase. More often than not politically correct unit occur in public speeches or texts, newspapers and magazines, but over time, the most popular, and take root in everyday speech.
In recent decades, politically correct vocabulary has expanded its borders. Depending on what type of discrimination is prevented, it is possible to unite politically correct expressions in the following groups:
Words and expressions which prevent racial or ethnic discrimination
This kind of discrimination is called Racism in English. Perhaps it is this group of words we think first of all, when we hear about political correctness. But vocabulary, which can be attributed to this group, have long gone beyond the most famous Afro-American instead of Negro. By analogy, the black residents of other countries became known as Afro-Brazilian, and so on.
With regard to other nationalities, the word Indian in America is now accepted to replace the phrase indigenous person, ie a local or Native American — Native American. Also, if we are not talking about ice cream, and the person is good enough to use Native Alaskan, instead of the Eskimo.
Hispanics term became popular in the United States in the 1970s. So we called Latinos. Since it is now a word associated with the poor strata of society, some people prefer the following expression Latino / Latina (Latin American origin), Chicano / Chicana (Mexican American), Spanish American (Mexican American).
Words and expressions which prevent sex discrimination
The popularity of the feminist movement has provoked attention to everyday speech. Feminists accused of sexism in English. From English sexism — sexism. Available in English, more masculine form has been the subject of many discussions and disputes.
The main target for the most ardent defenders of women’s rights were the words with the component man. Along with the policeman, businessman began to use policewoman or a businesswoman. It has even come to talk about replacing the woman on wommyn, all in order to get rid of the hated particles. Over time, these measures are deemed inadequate and began an active search for a neutral expression. For this reason, some have tried to replace the stewardess (- ess — cuffiks feminine) on the flight attendant. Why the difference between the waiter and waitress, better come up with a faceless waitron.
If most of the above examples of valid cause a smile and never taken root in the language, some of the changes over the pronouns have become commonplace. If once an offer If a person wants to study language, he must work hard is not in doubt, it is now the right option will sound: If a person wants to study language, he or she must work hard. The letter is often used abbreviated version: s / he.
Words and expressions which prevents age discrimination
Age discrimination is called Ageism. Using politically correct units often regards respect for the elderly. Perhaps you will agree that the association with the word old is not the most pleasant. So do not be surprised if you will read in the papers or heard in public speeches such expressions as the third age person, senior citizen.
Age discrimination can relate to people of all age groups. For example, most of it takes place in employment. In this case, as the victims are too young people and the older generation. Although, like any kind of discrimination, ageism is based on stereotypes and prejudices.
Words and expressions which prevent discrimination estate
Vocabulary that belongs to this group, is used to replace the words to describe the financial status of a person, cause unpleasant associations. The poor man, of course, do not get richer if the call it economically exploited. However, the second variant is considered more valid than all of the usual poor. In order not to offend his interlocutor, referring to his difficult financial situation, the most «sympathetic» may resort to even differently advantaged.
The well-known qualifications of flight — economy class flight, business class flight and first class flight is also an example of politically correct language of the group. Although, of course, with time, these phrases lose the function of veiling.
Words and expressions which prevent discrimination against people with disabilities
In angliyckom language this kind of discrimination is called Ableism. This term can be interpreted as a set of stereotypes that deny people with certain disabilities opportunities to realize their full potential. In English, the politically correct statement of the group formed by the prefix — challenged. This prefix begins to displace the once quite acceptable handicapped or disabled, because the past underline the complete absence of one or the other physical ability in humans.
For example, physically-challenged instead of disabled, visually-challenged instead of blind. However, a very active use of the console led to absurd expressions such as:
- metabolically challenged — dead (dead)
- generationally challenged — old, young (young or old, depending on the specific situation)
- conversationally challenged — boring (boring)
- folically challenged — bald or balding (bald or balding).
Political correctness is a very mixed public reaction. Increasingly, this linguistic phenomenon is becoming a subject of ridicule. Here it is impossible not to recall the book by James Finn Gardner «Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Tales for Our Time and Life». The author decided to rewrite the famous tale politically correct language. «The Three Little Pigs,» «Cinderella,» «Little Red Riding Hood,» «Snow White,» «Jack and the bean grain» — this is not a complete list of «correct» stories. There wolf — a carnivorous imperialist oppressor (carnivorous imperialistic oppressor), sisters of Cinderella have such irregular appearance that they are able to stop the clock (differently visaged enough to stop a clock), and Snow White is suffering from the fact that a successful target for discrimination based on skin color (a fortunate target of colorist thinking).
A dystopian novel, Ray Bradbury «Fahrenheit 451» has the following words: «A colored do not like the book» Little Black Sambo «. Burn it. White distasteful «Uncle Tom’s Cabin.» Burn and her too. Someone wrote a book about that smoking predisposes to lung cancer. Tobacco manufacturers in panic. Burn this book. … Get out of all that gives rise to concern. In the stove! Funeral catching gloom — is a pagan rite. Abolish the funeral. »
The fact that political correctness designed to eliminate the humiliation of others, begins to lose its original, highly commendable sense. After all, the absence of measures and punching politically correct statements creates a comic effect. This is true, for example, statements that raise the prestige of certain professions. Do not be surprised if you meet a customer engineer instead salesperson, automobile engineer instead mechanic. And probably you’ll never guess what a huge phrase like home plaque removal instrument may mean just an ordinary toothbrush. These statements, though absurd, but harmless. Quite different is the case with evfemii to cheat society and veiling the Government of its intentions. This phenomenon is called «psevdoevfemiya» and talk about it in the next article.