On this part of the speech, as an adverb (adverb) in the English language, we have already spoken. With the basic information concerning the functions of adverbs, their forms and degrees of comparison, you can see the article «Speech in the English language.» In this article we will focus on the formation of adverbs in English. And, of course, talk about certain nuances that should pay attention to the study of this topic.
Let me remind you in two words: adverb — is an independent part of speech, pointing to a sign of the action or the different circumstances in which this action is carried out. Therefore, the adverb refers to the verb.
She came home late. — She came home late.
I can speak English fluently. — I can speak fluently in English.
If an adjective or adverb determines another adverb, it refers to their symptoms.
She is a very good teacher. — It is — a very good teacher.
I do not want to order this dish. It’s quite expensive. — I do not want to order this dish. It is quite expensive.
Adverbs can be used with the past participle (past participle):
I was deeply touched by his words. — I am very (deep) touch his words.
This method is widely used in preventive treatment. — This method is widely used in prophylactic treatment.
How do we determine what is the word in English is a dialect? And how is it different from the adjective? And what if the form of the adjective and adverbs same? Let’s deal.
Education adverbs in English
Adverbs in English can be identified by the suffix — ly. It is this suffix, and is indicative of a part of speech as an adverb. With this suffix and the formation of adverbs in English from adjectives, nouns, and some of the ordinal numbers in English, and even the sacraments.
- Terrible — terribly (awful — awful)
- Momentary — momentarily (instant — a moment)
- Practical — practically — (practical — practically)
- Week — weekly (Week — weekly)
- Right — rightly (the right — right)
- Exceeding — exceedingly (exceeding — extremely)
- Rare — rarely (rare — rare, rare)
But do not forget that this rule formation of adverbs in English is not immutable. In this language, there are a lot of adjectives with the suffix — ly, so be careful.
- Ghastly — terrible (and he looks well and adverb)
- Kindly — Good (adverb in the same form, translated as «cute»)
- Mannerly — polite
- Painterly — Scenic
- Queenly — Regal
- Spindly — long and thin
As ghastly word and kindly, in the English language, there are other words that have the same form of the adjective and adverbs. The main thing — to understand the difference of values and competently use as an adjective and an adverb: fast — fast, hard — hard, early — early, late — late, long — long. To distinguish between adjectives and adverbs, the same shape, it is necessary to determine their function in a sentence. We remember that the adverb will determine the verb (adjective or another adverb), but the adjective is necessary to determine a noun.
The economy is progressing fast. — The economy is developing rapidly.
She is a fast worker. — She works fast.
And some adverbs have two forms — one is the same as that of an adjective, and the second suffix ly. For example: slow — slowly.
In English, these two forms of adverbs (as an adjective on — ly) may be different values. What am I saying? Here are some examples:
- Close — close, closely — closely, intently, carefully
Please, do not add other sentences, stick close to the text. — Please do not add other proposals, strictly stick to the text.
He asked me closely about what I had done. — He asked me in detail about what I was doing.
- High — highly, highly — very, very
Do you think it’s dangerous to climb high into the mountains? — Do you think it is dangerous to climb high into the mountains?
This new enterprise needs highly skilled foreign specialists. — This new businesses need highly skilled foreign specialists.
- Hard — many, stubbornly, hardly — hardly hardly
You always feel when someone looks hard at you. — Always feel when someone drives your eyes.
We hardly ever go to the cinema. — We almost never go to the cinema.
- Late — late, lately — lately
She came back home late. — She came home late.
Have you been reading anything interesting lately? — You have recently read something interesting?
- Near — close, nearly — nearly
The chemist’s is quite near. — Pharmacy very close.
I’m nearly through with the book. — I’m almost finished reading the book.
Speaking about the addition of the suffix — ly to form adverbs in the English language, not to mention some of the laws of spelling in this case:
- If a word ends in — le, the formation of adverbs we throw the letter e and adding instead — ly only y: simple — simply. If the same word, which is formed adverb ends in any other letter before the final e, that the word remains the same, ie e is not throwing, and thereafter adding the suffix — ly: polite — politely, desperate — desperately. The exception is the word true — truly.
- If a word ends in a consonant, followed by the letter y, then we have this bukovku remove and add ily: hearty — heartily.
- If at the end of words are shaped as letters l, it does not mean that because of the suffix — ly the same letter should be removed. On the contrary, now they will be two: original — originally.
- If a word ends in -ic, usually adding the suffix — ally: tragic — tragically.
Another suffix to form adverbs in English, is a suffix ward (s): backward (s) — back, leeward — the wind.
And one little nuance. Remember that verbs look (look), smell (smell), sound (sound), feel (feel) and taste (taste) require the use of the adjective behind, not an adverb: She looks beautiful. Your new perfume smells nice.