Currently, the English recognized the most productive ways of word 6:
- Affixation — model «stem + affix», for example, friend (friend) — friendly (friendly (-but)).
- Compounding — a model of «base + base», for example, sun + rise = sunrise (sunrise, dawn).
- Conversion — Model V → N or N → V, for example, hand → to hand (transfer, touch).
- Reversion — model «basis — the quasi-affix», for example, to compute (compute) from the computer.
- Portmanteau — there on the model, you can speak only conditionally, as a combination of fragments bases, for example, slanguist → slang + linguist.
- Reducing — eg, influenza → flu (influenza).
Other methods: striping (for example, to live on life); doubling (murmur — mutter, say), and nemodelirovannye ways — onomatopoeia (to moo — moo; to hiss — hiss) and rhyming repeat as interleaved, and without it (for example, too-too — too, too; Humpty-Dumpty — Humpty Dumpty) are secondary and unproductive.
The more words we know, the richer our vocabulary and, as a consequence, the more interesting and more diverse our fellowship. In English, in many cases, the same word in the pronunciation and spelling, but they are different parts of speech. And it happens because of the phenomenon of conversion (Eng. Sonversion from Lat. Sonversio «treatment», «transformation»).
Conversion — the way of word formation, in which one part of the speech produced another without any changes in the external form of the word, if you keep in mind the initial word form, for example, the infinitive of the verb or the common case of a noun in the singular. Words such as telephone n. (phone) and telephone v. (call / communicate by phone) are not only its syntactic function, but also a paradigm, for example, the verb form has a telephone telephones, telephoned, telephoning, telephone and the noun is plural (many) telephones.
The conversion characteristic of the English language because of its analytical system. Thanks to this method of word language acquires morphological freedom, since one and the same word may be used as different parts of speech, and hence act in a different syntactic function (ie, vary the sentence).
In modern English conversion — this is the main method of forming verbs, Model N → V. Derivative conversion verbs and nouns initial develop the following types of values:
- Implement the action using that noun is indicated by source (to hammer — hammering; to rifle — a rifle to shoot; to eye — to examine, to consider; to shoulder — push / touch the shoulder, elbow).
- Performs actions that are typical of what a noun is indicated by source (to father — paternal care) or to act like an animal called the original noun (to dog — to follow closely, track; to fo x — cheat).
- Implementing the fact that the source is indicated noun (fish — to fish — fish) or, conversely, to lose what is indicated by the original noun (skin — to skin — flay / skin).
- Or be moved to a place designated by the original noun (to garage -stavit car garage; to pocket — put it in his pocket).
- Conduct period of time, called a noun (to winter — winter; to weekend — wire (where l.) Weekends).
This list could fill up many more examples of the famous words.
- drum (Drum) — to drum (playing drums)
- elbow (elbow) — to elbow (elbow push)
- flower (flower) — to flower (blossom, blossom)
- iron (iron) — to iron (iron, iron)
- queue (all) — to queue (wait in line)
- ticket (ticket) — to ticket (ticketing, issue tickets)
Thus, the conversion helps vocabulary: Remember one noun, you thus learn and related verb. But do not confuse conversion with another secondary way of word — change of emphasis. Many forms of nouns coincide c form of the verb, but distinct from the stress — nouns have the accent on the first syllable, and the corresponding verbs — the second:
- export / ɛkˌspoɚt / (export) — to export / ɛkspoɚt / (export)
- import / ɪmˌpoɚt / (imports) — to import / ɪmpoɚt / (import)
- increase / ɪnˌkri: s / (increase) — to increase / ɪnkri: s / (increase (Xia))
- insult / ɪnˌsʌlt / (insult) — to insult / ɪnsʌlt / (insult)
- suspect / sʌˌspɛkt / (suspect people) — to suspect / səspɛkt / (suspect)
If the conversion is possible not only to move the noun into a verb, but also the formation of verbal nouns. In the case of semantic relations in the model V → N, ie, at a conversion verb noun latter acquires the following values:
- Single action (a cry — a cry, cry; a glance — a glance, a flash).
- The result of the action, producing the basis of the transmitted (a purchase — buying; a find — finding).
- Condition or process (a sleep — sleep; a walk — walk, walking).
- Agentivity when the noun refers to the manufacturer’s actions (a tramp — tramp).
- Locative when the noun refers to the place of action (a stand — stand; a stop — stop (bus, etc.).
Many nouns formed from verbs can be used only in the singular form and as a rule, in the speech, they are used in conjunction with a specific verb or verb group, for example, to get, to have, to take etc. This phrase conveys the value of the species or a phraseology (eg, to have a smoke — smoke, to take a walk — a walk). In such cases, the conversion is partial.
However, the phenomenon of conversion is not unique to verbs and nouns, adjectives can also be converted into nouns and verbs, even. In modern English suschetvuet otadektivnyh many nouns, ie those which are formed on the model of A → N. Typically, these nouns are formed not by conversion, and with the participation of the ellipse («omission», «pass»), ie, substantivized adjective is used instead of the phrase, consisting of an adjective and a noun defined them. There are the following two types of partial substantivized adjectives:
- Those which can be used only in the singular with the definite article. They have a value of collective nouns, determine the class, nationality, or a separate group of people. For example, the decay of the adjective phrase rich people rich not only gets the definite article (the), but also gets the semantic value of the whole of the former phrase: the rich — rich people; the English — English people.
- Those that are used only in the plural, and also have the value of collective nouns such as sweets — sweets, candies; greens — greens, vegetables; I like musicals (musical comedies).
Adjectives can also move into the category of verbs, model A → V. Exceptions are the adjectives suffixed. Root form adjectives verbs with a value of a state change, for example:
- clean (clean) — to clean (cleaned)
- slim (slim, slender) — to slim (thin)
- brown (brown) — to brown (tan)
As a rule, determine the direction of the conversion is difficult, and sometimes impossible. Conventional criteria used to determine the direction of the conversion process, are as follows:
- The semantics of the initial foundations of broader semantics derived word (to laugh → a laugh; hammer → to hammer).
- In the original members of the couple more extensive formative families (a grade — gradual, gradation, gradient, etc. → to grade).
However, it should be borne in mind that these criteria are not absolute and may be infringed.
Thus, the conversion — this is an extremely productive way to replenish the lexical structure of new words. There are various models of conversion: nouns, verbs and adjectives can be converted into other parts of speech, acquiring new meanings. The different models there are certain semantic relationships between members konvertivnoy couples, but most relationships are found in a variety of models N → V (the formation of new verbs from nouns), so it is considered to be the most productive. The notion of conversion is very useful for English language learners: Remember one word, for example, a noun, you thus learn and related verb. And to understand what part of speech is a particular word in the text, with an absolute coincidence in their spelling and pronunciation, it is easy to always on context, thanks to strict word order of English sentences.