Inclination (mood) — a form of the verb, which determines the ratio of the action to reality, namely, whether the action presented in the proposal, feasible, desirable, problematic or unrealistic. The subjective attitude of the speaker to what is reported in the proposal expressed by such means as modal words (modal words), modal verbs (modal verbs), mood (moods). In English, there are three moods: indicative (indicative mood), imperative (imperative mood) and the subjunctive (subjunctive mood). We are interested in the latter inclination, since conditional sentences in the English language was formed using this type of inclination. Despite the fact that the English subjunctive mood, there are three varieties — directly subjunctive (subjunctive mood), conditional (conditional mood) and the estimated inclination (suppositional mood) — it is, as a rule, is considered in the complex (for more details, see the article «The subjunctive mood in English «). So, and conditional sentences in the English language, we look at with all the features common to all three species subjunctive.
Types of conditional sentences in the English language
We’ll talk about three types of conditional sentences (conditional sentences).
1. The first type of conditional sentences in the English language is responsible for the «real» conditions of action presented in the proposal. Events of this conditional offer are forward-looking. All conditional sentences will necessarily present conjunctions such as «if» — if, «when» — when, «once» — as soon as, «before» — before, «until» — till, untill, «after »- after or others. A special feature of this type of conditional sentences is the fact that the simple future (Future Simple) is used only in the main clause. The subordinate clause after these alliances, we only use simple present (Present Simple). Translate it we will still future time.
If you hear her singing, you will be impressed by her voice. — If you hear her sing, you will make a great impression of her voice.
When this museum is open, we will go for an excursion there. — When the museum opened, we will go on a tour.
Some authors separate item emit zero type of conditional sentences. This type describes universal situations in which the condition of the subordinate clause will inevitably lead to the result indicated in the main clause. The simplest example of this type of conditional sentences — the phenomena of nature or the laws of physics. From the first type is characterized in that both parts of the proposals currently uses a simpler time (Present Simple).
If you heat ice, it melts. — If you heat ice, it melts.
When it rains, the streets are wet. — If the rain comes, the streets are wet.
The dog is happy when it sees its master. — The dog is happy when she sees the owner.
2. The second type of conditional sentences in the English language expresses an unlikely condition that can be treated as a present, and the future time. In order to form this type of conditional proposals must be in a subordinate clause to use the verb in the form of a simple or extended past tense (Past Simple / Past Continuous), and in the main clause to create a complex form of the subjunctive of the verb should / would and simple infinitive verb without to . If in the subordinate clause, we have the verb to be, then it will form the subjunctive were for all persons. In addition to verbs should / would possible to use modal verbs could / might. Examples:
If I were you, I would discuss this question with your boss. — If I were in your place, I would have discussed this matter with your supervisor.
She would be happy if she were invited to the party. — She would have been happy if she was invited to a party.
3. The third type of conditional sentences in the English language is characterized by its attitude to unrealistic actions. The proposals unreal condition refers to the elapsed time, which means that the implementation is not subject in any way. The establishment of such proposals, we need verbs should / would (modal could / might) with perfect infinitive without to to the main clause and the verb form of the past perfect tense (Past Perfect) in the subordinate clause. Examples:
If you had warned me about the danger, I would not have participated in this competition. — If you had warned me of the danger, I would not have participated in this competition (as the competition has gone, and nothing can not be changed).
If I had known about your disease I would have visited you at the hospital. — If I had known about your illness, I would visit you in the hospital (and I did not know, and you have recovered).
In a separate group of conditional sentences in the English language, make suggestions to the verb to wish, which in this case would be translated as pity. Here are the forms used in these conditional sentences:
- if the action in the subordinate clause occurs simultaneously with the action, expressed in the main clause, we use in the subordinate clause form of the verb simple past or were for all people:
I wish she were next to me. — It is a pity that she is not with me.
I wish I could call her. — It is a pity that I can not call her.
- if the action of the subordinate clause precedes the action in the main clause, then we use the verb in the form of a perfect past tense:
I wish I had seen this yesterday. — I’m sorry I did not see it yesterday.
Subject conditional sentences in the English language is difficult enough, but to understand all the rules, you can competently use such proposals in the learning process. Be sure to pay attention to the article «Mixed Conditionals. Mixed conditionals ‘,’ Table: conditional sentences «and then go test» The test for the use of conditional sentences in the English language. »