Studying the infinitive in English, we somehow learn about this remarkable structure, which has three names: a complex addition, Complex Object and The Accusative with the Infinitive. How to call this complex in the English language, each chooses. However, the second name is still more common and easily recognizable, so the title of this article, we learned it was his.
Complex object in English: a rule and example sentences
This structure consisting of a noun in the common case (noun in a common case) or pronouns in the objective case (pronoun in an objective case) and infinitive. Recall look like pronouns in the objective case:
- I — me
- you — you
- he — him
- she — her
- it — it
- we — us
- they — them
Let us see how, in practice, implemented complex object in the English language by way of example sentences:
We noticed the woman enter the house through the back door. — We noticed a woman entered through the back door.
I saw them walk along the road. — I saw them walking down the road.
I did not hear her say this because she spoke in a soft voice. — I did not hear how she said it because she said quietly.
As is evident from these proposals, complex object in English translates subordinate additional proposals introduced unions «how», «what», «to». Noun or pronoun in this complex supplement related subject and infinitive — the predicate of the subordinate clause.
Complex object in the English language has its own rules for the use, are worth considering. In general, a complex addition to the English language is used after some verbs, which are grouped into certain categories. Thus, complex object in the English language is used with verbs:
- Expresses the physical perception and feeling to see — to see, to watch — look, to notice — notice, to observe — to observe, to feel — to feel, to hear — to hear and others.
- I express my motivation, compulsion: (to let — let, to make — make, to have — to dispose, to cause — cause, cause). The infinitive is also without to.
- Expresses the desire and the need (to want — to want, to wish / to desire — wanting, to like — like, should / would like — I would like to).
- Expresses the assumption (to expect — expect to rely; to suppose — to believe, to believe — to believe to believe; to consider / to find — count).
- Expresses the knowledge, awareness, assertion (to know — to know, to think — to think, to state — say, to note — to celebrate, to report — reporting and others).
- Expresses coercion, order, resolution, or a request (to order — ordering, to allow — to authorize, to forbid — prohibit and others).
When we put these verbs the infinitive without the particle to.
I have never heard you sing. — I’ve never heard you sing.
We saw the postman slip a thick envelope into the box. — We’ve seen the postman dropped in the mailbox thick envelope.
With verbs of perception may be used in addition to the infinitive and present participle (Participle I). If we in the complex object in English use the infinitive, we emphasize the one-time actions committed, but if we take the sacrament, that demonstrate the process flow of the action.
I saw her run into the house. — I saw how she ran into the house.
I saw her running along the road. — I saw her running down the road.
In addition, if the verb see and hear used in the sense of «know» and «understand» Accordingly, we are not referring to the complex object in English and take the clause:
I see that you are in low spirits. — I see that you have not in the mood.
You can not make me do such things. — You can not make me do it.
Never let him go. — Never let go of it.
They had the man do what they wanted. — They forced this man to do what they wanted.
He wanted his students to note the colours of animals. — He wanted his students have noted color animals.
The inspector would like you to explain everything to him. — The inspector would like you to explain everything to him.
Parents usually expect their children to be obedient. — Parents typically expect that their children will be obedient.
We believe it to be the best way out of this situation. — We believe that this will be the best solution in this situation.
People knew him to be a great sculptor. — People know that he is a great sculptor.
She thought him to be a qualified specialist. — She thought that he qualified.
He ordered him to stop this conversation. — He ordered him to stop this conversation.
As can be seen from the last four points, in all cases, the infinitive is used with a particle to.
In principle, this complete information, which concerns the complex object in English. There is one caveat. For the language characterized by the use of complex additions to the past participle (Participle II). In such a structure indicated that it is not itself the subject performs the action, and someone else does it for him. It looks as follows: to have one’s hair cut (a haircut), to have one’s eyes tested (check sight), to have one’s watch repaired (to give clock repair), etc.
I hope that the text of this article does not seem difficult for you, and you can easily learn how to use complex object in the English language, both written and oral speech! And make sure that you have learned, you will next test Complex object: