In Grammar By Victoria

Communion in English

Another impersonal form of the verb in the English language is the communion (Participle). It combines the features of adjectives, verbs and adverbs. In English, there is no part of speech as a gerund. Therefore, the English participle corresponds to the communion and the gerund in the Russian language. There are currently two participles in English: present participle (Participle I / Present Participle) and the past participle (Participle II / Past Participle). Let’s talk about each of them separately.

The present participle — Participle I

To form this communion in the English language, you need to add to the base of the verb without the particle to the end ing. If you want to denial, the particle is not placed before the sacrament.

  • walking
  • knowing
  • smiling, etc.

This communion in the English language has the following form:

  1. Indefinite Active (undefined in the active voice): asking — asking, asking (in general)
  2. Indefinite Passive (undefined in the passive voice): being asked — Asked by being asked (in general)
  3. Perfect Active (perfect in the active voice): having asked — Demand (shi) (already)
  4. Perfect Passive (perfect in the passive voice): having been asked — (already) been asked

Intransitive verbs have forms of the passive voice does not exist. This communion in English refers to an unfinished process, and in the Russian language corresponds to the present participle and a gerund imperfect form (we are talking about forms Indefinite). If we are talking about forms of Perfect, the sacrament of the English language will meet Russian gerund perfect form. Communion group Indefinite, both active and passive, indicates that the action takes place at the same time they expressed (in the present, past or future time) with the action of the verb-predicate semantic. Communion group Perfect, both active and passive, indicates that the action they expressed precedes the action of the verb-predicate. Precedence can also refer to the action in the present, past, or future tenses.

The present participle in English can perform several functions in a sentence and be:

  1. Definitions (like Russian participle), which stands in front of the noun or after.

    I saw her smiling face in the window. — I saw her smiling face in the window.

  2. Circumstances (mode of action, cause, time).

    Knowing English perfectly he was able to watch genuin foreign movies. — Knowing English perfectly, he could watch the original foreign movies.

    Travelling aroung the world, he visited as much countries as he could. — Traveling around the world, he has visited as many countries.

    Whislting he closed the door. — Whistling, he closed the door.

Past participle — Participle II

To form this participle in English from the regular verbs, it is necessary to the infinitive of the verb without the particle to add the ending ed. At irregular verbs form of communion II Individual. She is listed in the table of irregular verbs, and is in the third column.

Faded — wilted (flower), bought — bought

It reflects the communion process is finished, and the Russian language we translate passive participle perfect or imperfect form. Basically, in this sacrament in English presented the action that preceded the action expressed by the verb-predicate.

Past participle in the English language in the proposal may perform the following functions:

  1. Definitions

    Broken leg — broken leg

    Lost time — the lost time

  2. Circumstances (often preceded by unions when, if, unless)

    When asked important questions, he frowned and answered silly things. — When he asked important questions, he frowned and said some nonsense.

The wording of the definition of Communion in the English language (and Participle I, and Participle II) shows that it combines the properties of an adjective, adverb and verb. As an adjective, it can be proposed definition to the noun (analogue — Russian participle). Examples have been mentioned above. As an adverb, it may be in fact the proposal, both in the examples (analogue — Russian gerund). And as a verb, it can be directly determined by the supplement and adverb.

Entering the hotel, he noticed the new receptionist. — Entrance to the hotel, he noticed a new administrator.

Entered the building, he headed for the main office. — Going into the building, he went to the main office.

Seriously injured he continued running. — Seriously wounded, he continued to run.



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