In Proceedings By Alexandra

Affixation in English. Table suffixes nouns

We all know that almost everyone knows at least ten thousand words of their native language. So we can be fluent in a foreign language, we need a vocabulary of thousands of words 6-8, which is considered sufficient. But even this figure is for beginners to learn the language seems to be truly enormous. The situation is even more complicated would be if not for the fact that a large number of words are formed from each other, and because they are much easier to remember. Read and understood the rules of word formation, we can easily find in our memory only once heard the words, if we establish a direct connection with his other well-known to us the word.


There are many ways of word formation, but of course, you must start with the most important and common ones. One of these ways is affixation of which will be discussed in this article.

In simple terms, affixation — is a kind of picking up the pieces of words, something like a designer in which each piece will carry a certain meaning and be responsible for where and how it can be used newly collected words. For example, any Russian words, we may collect the same constructor. So, take the word «friend.» What can we form of it, adding to it the suffixes, prefixes or the end? We get the following words: friend, friendship, friends, friendly, foe, etc. All these words have the same root of the friend / friends, but they convey a different meaning. Ie we see that the addition of one or another part of the word, we can create a completely new words. Angiysky language is not an exception, and in it occur the same processes of word formation. But in addition to what we know about the process of word formation, it is also necessary to know the meanings of prefixes and suffixes, which will help determine the value of unknown words formed with the help of suffixes and prefixes from friends.

Affix (from the Latin. Affixus — attached) — part of the word, which has grammatical meaning, and which imparts a change in the value of the root. Affixes can be divided into word-formation, ie, forming new words and inflectional, ie expressing the ratio of words to other words or to the speaker. Regarding root derivational affixes are divided into standing in front of him — prefixes after him — inside and suffixes — infixes.

In order to form words related to specific parts of speech used by certain suffixes and prefixes. First of all, we will focus specifically about suffixes, as the most productive affixes in English.

Table suffixes nouns

The value of the suffix Suffix Examples
The value of a person belonging to a political current, profession or nationality -ist

-an

-ian (-n)

-ean

specialist (expert), socialist (Socialist), artist (painter)

historian (historian), librarian (librarian), Italian (Italian)

musician (musician), Iranian (Iranian), Brazilian (Brazilian)

European (European)

The value of following the teaching of the theory, the political movement -ism capitalism (capitalism), heroism (heroism), socialism (socialism)
Value class or position the actor -er

-or

-ee

-eer

-ant (-ent)

-ar

-ard

-ier

teacher (teacher), driver (driver), writer (writer)

inventor (inventor), actor (actor)

employee (employee), referee (sports referee)

auctioneer (the auctioneer), mountaineer (climber)

servant (servant), assistant (assistant), student (student)

beggar (beggar beggar)

drunkard (drinker, an alcoholic)

financier (financier)

The value of the result of action -ment

-ade

achievement (achievement), arrangement (the agreement)

decade (a decade), blockade (embargo)

The value of a particular state, the regime, the degree of relationship -hood

-ship

-cy

-acy

brotherhood (fraternity), childhood (childhood)

leadership (management), partnership (Partnership)

policy (the policy), accuracy (accuracy), infancy (infancy)

supremacy (superiority)

The value of the action, the state of the process, the result -age

-ing

-ence

-ance

-ion, -tion

-ition

-ation

-sion

-al

shortage (shortage), leakage (leak), marriage (marriage, marriage)

hunting (hunting), painting (painting)

silence (silence), difference (difference)

importance (importance), resistance (resistance)

collection (a collection, the collection), dictation (Dictation, Dictation)

competition (competition)

preparation (training), hesitation (doubt, hesitation)

decision (decision), division (division)

removal (removal), arrival (arrival), refusal (rejection)

The value of the quality or condition -dom

-ness

-ty

-ity

-ancy

-ency

-y

freedom (freedom), kingdom (the kingdom), wisdom (wisdom)

readiness (readiness), darkness (the darkness), kindness (goodness)

activity (Activity), safety (safety)

possibility (opportunity), nationality (ethnicity)

brilliancy (luster, splendor), constancy (consistency)

fluency (fluency), dependency (addiction)

perjury (perjury), modesty (modesty)

The value of the act, occupation or status -ry

-y

bakery (bakery), surgery (surgeon’s office), cookery (cooking)

factory (factory), laboratory (lab)

The designation of a particular branch of science -ics physics (physics), politics (policy), mathematics (math)
Designation of females -ess

-ette

waitress (the waitress), actress (actress), poetess (poet)

usherette (ticket collector)

Designation nationality -ese Chinese (Chinese), Japanese (Japanese)
Expression diminutive meaning or shade of neglect -ie

-let

birdie (birdie)

cloudlet (cloud), kinglet (chieftain)

Designation of different measures -th length (length), growth (growth), depth (depth)
Designation of various scientific concepts -ture

-ure (-lure)

-sure

-ssure

mixture (mixture)

failure (error, mistake)

measure (measure)

pressure (pressure)

Designation of abstract or general concepts, associations, groups, -ty

-ity

-y

safety (security), royalty (the monarchy)

popularity (popularity)

honesty (honesty)

The suffix having Latin origin -sis analysis (analysis), diagnosis (diagnosis)

In this table, I tried to collect the most common and productive suffixes nouns. And although here they collected more than fifty names, this is not a complete list.

In concluding his article, I would like to give advice to those who are learning English. Do not be afraid of the huge number of different suffixes, prefixes and endings of words — enough to understand the meaning of an affix and to know in what situation it can be used.

You can try your hand in the formation of nouns, passed the following test:

 

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