This unloved by all of us time Present Perfect … The present perfect tense, which is difficult to understand a person to learn English. We are not accustomed to that past tense in English can be represented several different options, which are characterized in that it is the author emphasizes in its proposal (during the action, its result, the duration or the lack thereof). Time Present Perfect is this the perfect time, but, nevertheless, translated into Russian verb past tense, but still perfect form.
And the thing is that this time, just talks about the event occurred, the actions completed. But these actions or events have a direct relationship with the present, their influence on the result of this very moment. This brings to mind a classic example of Present Perfect: I have lost my keys. I can not open the door. (I lost my keys and I can not open the door). The second is a consequence of the first, and the first, in turn, cause the second. In this example, the present perfect tense is clearly illustrated. But there are times when you reflect, and how to translate correctly or understand? To at least slightly ease the perception of time, you should pay attention to the words of markers Present Perfect in the proposal, they are an indicator of this particular time. Such markers are there at all times of the English language and their knowledge can be of great help in a situation where you are in doubt about their choice of the necessary grammatical form.
Adverbs indefinitely — that is usually the words satellite Present Perfect. These indicators emphasize the temporary bond action that began in the past and not so long ago ended with the present. That adverb with Present Perfect, which is necessary to remember, now studying The perfect time:
- ever — ever, ever had, ever
- never — never
- just — just, just, just, just, just, just, just, just now
- already — already before, even
- not … yet — there is still no, not yet, not yet, no, not yet
- before — early, before until already before
- lately — for a long time, recently, recently, for the last time
- of late — most recently, lately, recently
- so far — has, to date, this hour, yet so far, up to this point
- recently — recently, a few days ago, lately, just not so long ago
- by now — at the moment
- up to now — are still, to date
Even looking at the values of these dialects with Present Perfect, it is already possible to see that they are all closely related to the present time, though, serve to explain the action of the past. These semantic adverbs are placed before the verb, but some of them have their own particular use, which should be listed:
- If you never dialect verb is used only in the affirmative, since the proposal already has one negation:
I have never seen him. — I have never seen him.
- 2. Words such markers Present Perfect, how yet, already, lately, recently, before, of late may be at the end of the offer:
- Adverbs so far, up to now, by now usually put at the beginning of sentences (sometimes the end):
- The Present Perfect word-pointers lately (recently) and just (in the sense — only that) are used only in time Present Perfect:
The mail has just come. — Post just came.
I’ve just heard this news. — I just heard the news.
- When we use an adverb with a Present Perfect like recently, we mean value «for the last time» (for a short period of time before the present). Here necessarily take the form of the present perfect tense:
I have not heard from her recently. — I have not heard about it recently.
He has seen many films lately. — For the last time, he looked a lot of movies.
He has not finished his work yet. — He has not yet finished its work.
He has made good progress recently. — In recent years, he has made significant progress.
I have seen this cartoon before. — I’m as this cartoon before.
I’ve been here for an hour already. — I am here for an hour.
We have not spoken of late. — For the last time we spoke.
Note that adverb yet used in negative sentences. By the way, the adverb ever more often in the interrogative:
I have not had lunch yet. — I have not had lunch.
Have you ever had a car accident? — Have you ever had an accident in a car?
So far, he has written ten letters to this company. — To date, he has written in this company ten letters.
Up to now, I have not found this book. — So far I have not found this book.
By now, she has read fourteen novels by Stephen King. — To date, fourteen novels she read Stephen King.
And if we find a combination of just now, be sure to choose the simple past tense Past Simple:
She was here just now. — She just (this minute) was here.
If we need to use it in a sentence adverb recently in the sense of «not so long ago,» (not long ago), turn to the temporary form of the simple past tense (Past Simple):
I started painting only recently. — I started to paint not so long ago.
We met quite recently. — We met recently.
Now, test your strength and go through the following test: