As is known, in English there are independent and service parts of speech. So adverb (Adverb) is a part of speech, an independent, ie independent. To begin with, we recall that the adverb determines the character of the action. The main issues are the following adverbs:
- as? — How?
- how? — In what manner?
- Where? — Where?
- Why? — Why?
- when? — When?
- to what extent? — To what degree?
All dialects in the English language can be divided into two categories: in form and meaning. The form adverbs are:
- Simple (simple): now, today etc. (now, today, etc.)
- Derived (derived). They are formed from qualitative adjectives, to which is added the suffix — ly: usual — usually (normal — usually)
- Composite (compound): sometimes (sometimes)
- Composite (composite): at least (finally)
If we consider the classification of adverbs in the English language by value, we get the following groups:
- Adverbs of place (adverbs of place): there, at home (back home).
- Adverbs of time (adverbs of time): late, early, then (late early, then).
- Adverbs of manner (adverbs of manner): quickly, carefully (quickly, carefully).
- Adverbs of frequency (adverbs of frequency): seldom, once (rarely one).
- Adverbs of degree (adverbs of degree): rather, a bit (quite a bit).
Depending on its value, adverbs in sentences perform the function of the place, time, manner or degree. For example:
It’s snowing heavily. Will you come home late today? — There is heavy snow. Today you come late?
As the same manner adverbs in the English language? Most of them appear as a result of the addition of the suffix — ly to the adjective: sudden — suddenly (sudden — suddenly). The main thing is not to get confused, because some of the words, having in its composition this suffix, after all are adjectives: friendly, lonely (friendly, single). The following adverbs and adjectives have the same form for two: fast, hard, early, late, long, far, little, much, straight. Compare:
Tourists arrived at the station very early. They took an early train. — Tourists arrived at the station early. They sat on the first train.
Also pay attention to the difference between the two forms of such adverbs as hard — hardly (much hard — just barely); close — closely (close — close); high — highly (highly — very); late — lately (too late — in recent years); near — nearly (close — close). For example:
My aunt lives nea r the school. My grandmother is nearly 65. — My aunt lives near the school. My grandmother is almost 65 years old.
Degrees of comparison of adverbs in English
Like adjectives, adverbs have the English language have three degrees of comparison: positive (positive degree), comparative (comparative degree) and Excellent (superlative degree). To form comparative and superlative degree of comparison, adverbs with the suffix — ly, you must add the values of word more (less) or most (least), which translates as over / under and most / least, to the positive power of the word. For example:
Openly — more / less openly — most / least openly
(Open — more / less openly — most / least openly)
Monosyllabic adverbs, such as fast, soon, etc. form degrees of comparison, as well as their corresponding adjectives, that is, using the suffix — er / — est:
Soon — sooner — soonest (coming soon)
In a separate number of dialects there are no degrees of comparison. This includes before, here, very other.
And have a group of dialects of the English language, which is an exception, because they form degrees of comparison against the rules. They need to memorize:
Far — farther — farthest (away)
Far — further — furthest (away)
Badly — worse — worst (bad)
Little — less — least (a little)
Much — more — most (much)
Well — better — best (good)
The theme of «Adverbs in English» very closely linked with the theme of «adjectives in the English language.» So much easier to study them at the same time, then the information will be more accessible and understandable.