Commas help us, first of all, to correctly understand the meaning of written.
For example, take these suggestions:
If you cook Lisa will wash the dishes.
While we were eating a rattlesnake approached our campsite.
Put a comma after the cook and eating, and nobody prepares Lisa (cook Lisa), and no one eats rattlesnake (eating a rattlesnake).
Logic placement of commas in the English language is radically different from what is generally accepted in our country.
The comma is often used for the separation of simple sentences composed slozhnosochinёnnogo offer, but almost is not used for the separation of simple sentences composed slozhnopodchinёnnyh.
- Use a comma to separate simple sentences composed slozhnosochinёnnogo the Union: and, but, or, nor, so, and yet:
Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight, but I fell in love at first dance.
No need to use a comma when simple sentences as part of a complex short:
John came and we set off.
- Use a comma after any introductory phrase that says when or where the action is. Such phrases are the circumstances of time and place, and in the Russian language there is no comma after them.
That bleak December night of 1999, I learned the secret of their house.
Near the old oak just in the middle of the glade, we found a big mushroom.
Do not use a comma if a phrase is short:
In December I learned the secret of their house.
Near the old oak we found a big mushroom.
- A comma is needed even after a short introductory phrase, if it contains a gerund or participle (rarticiple).
Thinking about all the problems, he could not fall asleep.
Puzzled, he stared at her.
- Use a comma in a sentence in the presence of homogeneous members or enumeration:
My uncle willed me all his property, houses, and warehouses.
Please note that in contrast to the Russian language, English, and there is a comma before the conjunction «and» (and). Sometimes this comma may be particularly necessary to avoid misunderstandings. If, for example, in the above sentence, delete the comma after the word houses, it changes the meaning. It turns out that my uncle willed me his property, consisting of houses and warehouses.
- When comma separated uniform definitions, acts the same rule as in the Russian language — should be separated by only the definitions that describe the same svoystvo.Naprimer, this property can be in nature:
Mother has become a strong, confident, independent woman.
Here is an example where all the definitions describe different properties, namely the impression, size, color:
The frightening large gray shapes moved slowly towards us.
- Do not select the comma phrases narrowing the value of your proposal (restrictive elements or closes). Typically, these phrases can not be removed so that the sentence is not changed smysl.Naprimer:
Although the dessert made with fresh strawberries was delicious, the dessert made with cream was too sweet.
In this proposal, we can not delete phrases made with fresh strawberries and made with cream, therefore, to allocate them with commas should not be.
One corner of the attic was filled with newspapers dating from the turn of the century.
If we remove the phrase dating from the turn of the century, meaning of the sentence would be broader than we need (in the attic were just some of the newspaper, not the ones that were published in the beginning of the century), then highlight the phrase with commas do not need.
- Highlight commas qualifying phrases (non-restrictive closes or elements), which do not constrict the meaning of the sentence and can be removed without changing its meaning:
For camp the children needed sturdy shoes, which was expensive.
In this case, clarification, which was expensive (which is expensive), can be removed without losing the meaning of the sentence.
- Comma highlighted expressions: however, moreover, for example, as a matter of fact, in other words, etc.
- Highlight a comma and the introductory phrase:
Evolution, so far as we know, does not work this way.
- Dates in the beginning of the sentence is also distinguished by a comma:
On April 12, 1994, I came to visit him.
- Use commas in sentences with direct speech:
I said, «It’s quite strange.»
«Unlike you,» she said, «I love ballet.»
«Please!» She cried. «Stop it!»
Note the use of not only the commas and other punctuation in direct speech, as well as what the different design of direct speech in the English language from its registration in Russian.
- Not comma slozhnopodchinёnnye deals with the union that:
He right away noticed that she was in a hurry.
- Be careful! Union and can separate two slozhnopodchinёnnyh deals with the union that, separate them with commas too, should not:
Jane still does not know that he came yesterday and that he is preparing a surprise party for her.
- Do not separate comma simple sentences beginning with the words: after, as soon as, before, if, since, unless, until, when. Most often, these are the simple sentences, without which your complex sentence would have completely changed the meaning. Paragraph 6, we already know that such simple sentences as part of a complex can not be allocated by commas:
Do not visit Paris at the height of the tourist season unless you have booked hotel reservations.
On the levels of upper-intermediate and advanced, when vocabulary language learners is quite rich and serves to express more complex ideas, correct alignment of punctuation marks becomes an integral. Without it, it is impossible to write a good essay, abstract, business letter, article, course or research work. If you often have to express their thoughts in writing or you have to Study Abroad, Get a guide (A Writer’s Reference). Such books of different authors are now very much. As a rule, they paid attention to punctuation, style, editing, typical grammatical and spelling errors. The best option would be to guide focused not on language learners and to speak on it. I consider it necessary to mention here of the author as Diana Hacker. She has a very simple and clear writing style, and its «A Writer’s Reference» was my reference book for several years. Some examples in the article are taken from this book.